Looms, Spinning Wheels, Spinning Jennies:
Articles in Civil War Newspapers

NATCHEZ DAILY COURIER, December 6, 1861, p. 1, c. 1
Manufacture of Domestic Implements.  The Louisiana Baptist learns that a factory has just been established in Claiborne parish, between Mount Lebanon and Homer, for the manufacture of corn-shellers, wheat fans, spinning-wheels, looms, and many other similar articles that are largely used in the country now, and the demand for which will be still further increased hereafter.  This is the way to make the Confederacy really independent.

NATCHEZ DAILY COURIER, January 23, 1862, p. 1, c. 1

The Hand-Loom and Shuttle.

                Our friend Mumford McGehee, of Natchez, ever mindful of the public wants and always inventive and industrious, has lately made one of his improved hand-looms, which is for exhibition at the warehouse of B. Pendleton, Esq., directly opposite this office.  It is a neat structure, and will contrast favorably with any of foreign brand.
    
           Mr. McGehee feels sensibly the importance and necessity of the South at once entering upon the manufacture of its own cloth; and he doubtless thinks, with many others, that if his loom does not entirely take the place of the piano, it should have a room alongside in every house in this Confederacy.
    
           We ask our readers to give his new loom an inspection and trial.
 

THE SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], March 12, 1862, p. 2, c. 5

Spinning Wheels.

                Mr. H. A Cook, of the "Southern Wheel Company," exhibited to us the other day a very simple contrivance for increasing the speed of spindles three-fold.  This lessens the labor of turning the wheel, and doubles the quantity of work done in a day.   We learn from Mr. C. that it is the intention of the company to keep the market fully supplied with these wheels. 

COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, March 18, 1862, p. 3, c. 4
               
Improved Spinning Wheel.—Mr. H. A. Cook, of this place, has presented us with one of his "Improved,  Dixie Spinning Wheels."  The improvement is in the spindle and can be used upon the old fashioned wheels. They spin three times as fast as the old spindles.  This is a timely and valuable invention.  Everybody should have one; as everybody who can should be spinning and weaving during the next winter.  The wheels can be had at the Foundry in this place.
                                                                                                               
[Athens Banner. 

COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, April 8, 1862, p. 1, c. 3
               
Georgia Made Looms.—A few days since we saw in operation in the Athens Factory some looms that were put up in this place.  We were informed by the Agent that they would operate equally as well as the Northern loom.  There are twelve of them already running, and thirteen others will soon be put in operation.  They were put up by the Athens Steam Company.  This is another step towards Southern independence.—Athens Banner. 

COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, April 22, 1862, p. 4, c. 3
               
Louisiana Cottonade.—We translate from L'Avant Courier the following:
               
The Creole women of Attakapas have been making for a long time, out of the cotton grown upon the soil, certain goods much esteemed in the markets of the South.  A woman can make twenty-five ells (an ell is a yard and a half), of cottonade a month, and this is worth $3 an ell, which makes $75.  The expenses of fabrication are small.  Two years since a Tennessean brought into  Attakapas a certain number of machines to clean, card and spin the cotton.  There are now in this region about a hundred of these machines, capable of making 300 ells of cottonade a month.  The cottonade sells at a price reduced to $1.75 an ell.  The machine imported from Tennessee does not occupy more than four or five square feet, and can be worked by two children.
 

THE SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], June 4, 1862, p. 2, c. 1

Home Industry.

                While at the plantation of our highly esteemed friend Richard Dowdy, Esq. of Madison county, the other day, we looked in at the establishment of H. A. Cook & co.  The machinery all goes by water-power, and is kept busily employed in making pike handles, spinning wheels, hand looms, and other useful articles.  We commend this establishment to the attention of those in need of such articles.  Thrown entirely upon our own resources, it is important that we should do all we can towards clothing our soldiers in the field as well as the people at home.  To do this successfully, we need wheels and looms.  At the above establishment good articles can be had at reasonable prices. 
    
           Mr. I. M. Kenney is agent here for the sale of wheels and looms.  Orders left with him, we are requested to say, will be promptly attended to.
 

THE SOUTHERN BANNER [ATHENS, GA], August 6, 1862, p. 4, c. 4
Looms and Wheels.  By Cook & Co., at Dowdy's Mills.
June 18.                                  I. M. Kenney, Agent. 

DALLAS HERALD, October 11, 1862, p. 2, c. 4

Looms and Weaving.

                The undersigned, being a practical Weaver, and having been employed in the Manufactories at Lyons, France, is now building looms, with the flying shuttle which he offers to the public.  He will also weave cloth, blankets, &c., at 25 cts. per yard for single width and 50 cts. for double width.
               
All orders promptly and faithfully executed.  Will also purchase all the yarn that may offer.                                                                                 B. Femelat.
               
Dallas, Texas, Oct. 11, 1862—16:2mo. 

SAVANNAH REPUBLICAN, October 13, 1862, p. 2, c. 2

Looms Wanted.

                The Committee on Manufacturing Cloth invite proposals for Looms suitable for weaving stout cloth for soldiers' wear.  Application to be made immediately, to
                                                                                                                           
Joseph Lippman,
                                                                                                                      
Chairman Committee.
 

NATCHEZ DAILY COURIER, November 4, 1862, p. 1, c. 4
Go to Gunning's for Your Looms!  Looms!! and Fixtures Necessary for working them.  For sale by D. R. Gunning.  Nov. 4, 1862. 

SOUTHERN CONFEDERACY [ATHENS, GA], November 7, 1862, p. 2, c. 4
               
Spinning Wheels.--The Corsicana (Texas) Express says:  "The hum of the spinning wheel and clank of the loom greet our ears and vision wherever we go.  The instruments of machinery predominate, the piano retiring, and, for the present, being a useless instrument.  Young and old ladies are exercising great diligence in spinning, weaving, and supplying clothing for the soldiers the ensuing winter.  They are entitled to the praise of the soldiers, and should receive, at home, every encouragement in their noble work. 

SAVANNAH REPUBLICAN, November 13, 1862, p. 2, c. 4

Looms!  Looms!
Make Your Own Cloth.

                We have for sale and are now manufacturing a hand-loom, which we claim to be superior to any of its kind in the Confederacy.  This superiority consists in the fact that its parts are self-changing; that the shuttle is thrown, treadles operated, warp unwound off, the warp-beam and the cloth wound up on the lath beam by the simple and single motion of the lay back and forth.  All the operator has to do being only to move the long lay, fill the shuttle and change the temples.  Price, complete, $160.  Call and examine for yourselves before buying.  Fully three times as much cloth can be made on them as on the old Loom in the same time.
                                                                                               
Nelson & Co.
                                                                                                               
Columbus, Ga.
 

MEMPHIS DAILY APPEAL [GRENADA, MS], November 13, 1862, p. 1, c. 6
A lady living five miles north of Ozark, Arkansas, with an axe, a saw, a chisel and an auger, made herself a loom out of oak rails, upon which she now weaves eight yards of coarse cotton cloth a day.  The thread is furnished by Major N. B. Pearce, and woven into cloth for army purposes.  Think of that, ye effeminates who loll on a sofa or carriage cushions and complain. 

SAVANNAH REPUBLICAN, November 14, 1862, p. 1, c. 3
. . .
4.  Spinning Thread or Yarn.--When factories fail to supply the demand, and spinning wheels cannot be had, and even when cards are beyond reach, there is yet a resource to be had in the instrument used before either factories or spinning wheels were known, and mentioned by Solomon in his last chapter of the book of Proverbs, where in his graphic picture of the virtuous woman, he says:  "She layeth her hands to the spindle and her hands hold the distaff."  The simple process to which he alludes, and which was then the only mode of spinning, was this:  The wool, flax, or cotton was loosely distributed over a small branching rod or leafless bush from which it was fed to the spindle and the last of steel, like the spindles of our ordinary spinning wheels, or of tough hard wood, was loaded near the blunt end with a disk of metal or a ball of hardened clay, and was twirled by the fingers like a child's chincopin or button with a straw stuck through it.  The revolutions of this spindle accomplishes the twisting of the thread, as we do now by the more rapid and convenient instrumentality of the wheel or the throstle.  Slow as the process may be, it can be made to give excellent thread and yarn, which may be more economical than the now costly hanks of the factory.  Many years since there was a poor person in the neighborhood of Savannah who plied one of the instruments just described, with surprising dexterity and success.  It can be done again. 

MOBILE REGISTER AND ADVERTISER, November 21, 1862, p. 1, c. 7
               
A lady living five miles north of Ozark, Arkansas, with an axe, a saw, a chisel and an auger made herself a loom out of oak rails, upon which she now weaves eight yards of coarse cotton cloth a day.  The thread is furnished by Maj. N. B. Pearce, and woven into cloth for army purposes. 

COLUMBUS [GA] ENQUIRER, November 25, 1862, p. 1, c. 6
               
A Loom for the Times.—Dr. P. R. Clements, from Eufaula, Ala., has in our city a loom of  his invention, which we think is just the machine for the times.  This loom can weave with one ordinary hand about 40 yards of good homespun a day.  It is worked by a small balance wheel and crank.  Dr. Clements proposes to sell the right for counties for the State.  Here is offered a splendid opening for an enterprising mechanic.  The looms can be purchased in Eufaula, Ala., for $75 each.—Milledgeville Union.
 

SAVANNAH REPUBLICAN, December 4, 1862, p. 1, c. 5
               
A lady, living five miles north of Ozark, Arkansas, with an axe, a saw, a chisel, and an auger, made herself a loom out of oak rails, upon which she now weaves eight yards of coarse cotton cloth a day.  The thread is furnished by Major N. B. Pearce, and woven into cloth for army purposes.
 

THE SOUTHERN BANNER [ATHENS, GA], December 10, 1862, p. 1, c. 7
A lady, living five miles north of Ozark, Arkansas, with an axe, a saw, a chisel, and an auger, made herself a loom out of oak rails, upon which she now weaves eight yards of coarse cotton cloth a day.  The thread is furnished by Major N. B. Pearce, and woven into cloth for army purposes. 

GALVESTON WEEKLY NEWS, December 24, 1862, p. 1, c. 2
. . .
          With my own hands I have finished a month ago and they are now in successful operation, what my neighbors pronounce a very neat set of spinning wheels, reel, loom, warping mill, 40 spools, 2 reels or sleys, shuttles, &c., all the outfit and preparation for making various kinds of cloth.  I am now engaged in making a chemical analysis with the coloring matter obtained from our forests.  The ladies are delighted with my experiments.
                                                                                                                       
GIDEON.
 

THE SOUTHERN WATCHMAN [ATHENS, GA], December 31, 1862, p. 3, c. 4

Notice to Weavers and Others.
Reeds and Harness or Headles.
George Memno,

Reed or Sley Maker..............................................................................Athens, Ga.
The only regular Reed Maker in the Confederate States, is prepared to furnish Steel or Cane Reeds at short notice.  Factories or others can be supplied with Reeds and Weaver's Harness, by addressing as above.  Also, Loom Pickers can be obtained as above.  Harness Twine of superior quality, made on machinery for that purpose, and varnished or unvarnished.
Athens, Dec 31.

SOUTHERN CONFEDERACY [ATHENS, GA], February 13, 1863, p. 2, c. 3—looms ad 

MEMPHIS DAILY APPEAL [JACKSON, MS], February 23, 1863, p. 2, c. 8
For Sale.  A No. 1 Fly Shuttle Hand Loom.  It can be had cheap if application is made soon at Armory Hall.  J. L. McAlenny. 

MOBILE REGISTER AND ADVERTISER, April 4, 1863, p. 1, c. 5
               
Manufactures in Arkansas.—A correspondent of the Petersburg Express, writing from Camden, Ark., says—
               
Domestic manufactures continue to thrive under the pressure of the war.  We have here an extensive manufactory of cotton and wool cards, another of spinning jennies and power looms; buckets, &c., are made in abundance, and of excellent quality, from the cypress, and we only lack the iron trade to put every branch of industry in an active condition. 

THE SOUTHERN BANNER [ATHENS, GA], July 8, 1863, p. 4, c. 3
Spinning Wheels.--Make at Wilson's, of the celebrated Hancock pattern, for sale by [?]
May 20  

CHARLESTON MERCURY, February 10, 1864, p. 1, c. 3

The Spinning Jenny.

                                                                                                                North Santee, January 28.
               
To the Editor of the Mercury:  Is it not a matter of surprise that, although the scarcity and high price of cloth has been one of the most important evils inflicted upon us by the blockade, we have failed to make use of a remedy entirely within our reach?  I allude to the spinning jenny, invented by Hargreaves, nearly a century ago.--Almost two years since, learning that one of these machines was in the neighborhood, I thought it worth while to pay it a visit of inspection.  I found it quite simple in construction, and such as any good carpenter could make, excepting the spindles of iron or steel, and the metal steps in which they turn.  Its operation is easily understood, and with it a woman can spin a bunch of yarn, as I was informed by the owner of the one in question in one day, instead of a month--the time required to spin a bunch of five pounds with the single spinning wheel now in general use all over the country; or, to make the contrast still more striking, one woman, with the jenny, would spin as much in a year as she would in thirty yarns with the common wheel.  Further, with the spinning jenny in universal use, as much yarn would be spun in the Confederate States in a month as would require thirty months with the single wheel, excluding the factories.
               
The yarn can be spun of any fineness; and our experience since the commencement of the war teaches us that, by using coarse yarn, warm clothing can be manufactured of cotton as well as wool, although, of course, not quite equal to the latter material.
               
In the making of cloth from the raw material, the most tedious and discouraging of all the processes to be gone through, is the spinning of the yarn.  To obtain a bunch of 5 lbs., sufficient to make about 15 yards of cloth, it is required, day after day, and week after week, to continue drawing out the yarn yard upon yard, and mile upon mile in length, until a month is consumed.  In short, the operation would discourage any but the more patient nature of woman.  A good carder can card a pound of cotton per day.  A weaver can weave then yards of cloth; both operations being far less tedious than the spinning.  If then the jenny supplies this great want, is it not important that at this time it should be generally introduced throughout the country, when the procuring of them is in our power.  A few days since looking over some of the old numbers of the "Penny Magazine," I came across a description of Hargreaves' invention in the volume of 1836, and it agreed exactly with the machine I had seen, and several of them are scattered through the country.  The original cost of the one I saw was $9 (nine dollars); and before the war, when cotton yard could be bought at eighty cents to one dollar per bunch, it had sold for one dollar!
                                                                                                                                               
N. 

WASHINGTON [ARK.] TELEGRAPH, February 24, 1864
Notice.  For sale--at the government wood shop, twelve superior looms.  They will be exchanged for cloth--cloth and looms valued at old prices.  J. D. Thomas, Major & Manuf'g. Q.M.D.A.  Washington, Ark. Feb. 148 1864. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, March 31, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
               
Mr. Editor:--
               
Mr. Geo. W. Johnson and myself have recently invented and tested a new spinning machine, which we call "the Spinning Jack"—it is more simple in construction, a more effective carder and spinner, and can be afforded at a lower price than any other spinning machinery of the same class, intended for home and plantation use.  We have a modification of the "spinning Jack" still more simple, adapted to the production of a coarse thread for negro cloth, which is within the capacity of the dullest negro to use and keep in order.  It is the intention to start an establishment capable of supplying to some extent the demand which must arise for these machines as soon as possible, at Bellville, or elsewhere.
               
The machine and principles involved in its construction will be made public as soon as the necessary steps are taken to secure a patent.
                                                                                                                               
S. Hayford. 

ALBANY [GA] PATRIOT, April 21, 1864, p. 3, c. 3
               
For  Sale:  4 bbls. Cane Syrup; 10 bales Yarns, fine numbers; 100 Spinning Wheels; 5 bales Osnaburgs.  by J. W. Fears & Co., Macon, GA. apr 21.

AUSTIN STATE GAZETTE, May 25, 1864, p. 2, c. 6

Spinning Wheels

A. Heusinger is now prepared to manufacture a superior article of spinning Wheels of better workmanship and at lower prices than ever offered here before.  Shop, one block north of Col. Ford's late residence.
Austin, May 15th, 1864