BELLVILLE [TEXAS] COUNTRYMAN
July 1860 – May 1865
 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, July 28, 1860, p. 2, c. 1

Our First Issue.

                We this day, issued the first number of our paper, with the above title.  We hope to make it a useful weekly visitor to the homes and firesides of our readers. . . . 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, July 28, 1860, p. 2, c. 1
               
Excitement in Northern Texas.—By an extra from the office of the Brenham Enquirer dated the 23d inst., we learn that [tear in paper] excitement in Northern Texas [tear in paper] an insurrection movement among the negroes, led on by white men.  Enough has been discovered to show that a deep laid plot was on the eve of being consummated to free the negroes and destroy the whites.  The insurrection was to take place on the election day in August.  The burning of the town of Dallas on the 8th inst., and of Denton, Pilot Point, Belknap, Gainesville, Black Jack Grove, etc., has been traced to the agency of these emissaries.  With such warnings about us it is time to beware.  Let every citizen and every member of the households in our County be on the look-out—be vigilant, be watchful.  There are many itinerating strangers among us.  Some pretending to follow one occupation and some another.  They may be spies and fiends intent on the destruction of our homes, our property and our lives.  No harm can result from "Eternal vigilance."
               
P.S.—We learn since writing the above, that a meeting has been held at Hempstead, to devise ways and means on these matters.  What will our people do? 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, July 28, 1860, p. 3, c. 7 

$50!

If paid strictly in advance, pays for board and Tuition for five months, (if not paid till close of Session, seventy dollars at

Mound Prairie
Institute,
Mound Prairie, Anderson Co., Texas 

Faculty.

                Elder Jas. R. Malone, M. A., President; Professor of Latin, Greek, Spanish, Pure Mathematics and Belles Letters.
               
Elder M. V. Smith, Prof. English Branches, Natural Science and mixed Mathematics.  Geo. W. Awalt, Tutor.

Female Department.

                Miss M. A. E. Dickson, Principal and instructress of Literary and Ornamental branches and French.
               
Musical Department is under the control of Prof. C. F. Cheesman, late of Alabama.
               
Prof. Cheesman is an expert Musician and master of his profession.  In short he is second to none in his department in the State of Texas, and the progress of the pupils give ample testimony of the fact.

Tuition for a Term of Five Months.
First Class........................$10
Second ".............................15
Third "................................20
Extra Course.
Music, with use of Instrument....$25.00
Ornamental and Needle Work....15.00
Spanish.......................................20.00
French........................................20.00
Drawing and Painting, each.........10.00
Contingent fee, due on entrance.......50

                Declamation and composition every two weeks.  Public review fourth Friday in every month.
               
Tuition due from day of entrance to the close of the session.
               
The President is prepared to take in forty boarders, in dormitories on his own land, at the exceedingly low price of $50 for a term of five months, (if not paid till the end of the term $70,) if paid strictly in advance.  Positively no deduction in any case except for protracted sickness.  All damage done to dormitories or furniture will be charged to the occupants of dormitories.  Present session closes June 10th, and the next session opens 2d Monday in August.
                                                                                                               
J. R. Malone,
                                                                                                                               
Principal.
               
N.B.—All bills for board and tuition due, made payable at Plentitude, Anderson County, Texas. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, August 4, 1860, p. 2, c. 6

The Abolition Plot in Texas.

                We extract the following from a letter to the Houston Telegraph, from Dallas, giving further particulars of the extensive Abolition plot discovered there a few days ago:
               
The outhouses, granaries, oats and grain of Mr. Crill Miller, were destroyed a few days after the destruction of Dallas.  This led to the arrest of some white men, whose innocence, however, was proved beyond a doubt.  Several negroes belonging to Mr. Miller, were taken up and examined, and developments of the most startling character elicited.  A plot to destroy the country was revealed, and every circumstance even to the minutiae, detailed.  Nearly or quite a hundred negroes have been arrested, and upon a close examination, separate and apart from each other, they deposed to the existence of a plot or conspiracy to lay waste the country by fire and assassination—to impoverish the land by the destruction of the provisions, arms and ammunition, and then when in a state of helplessness, a general revolt of the negroes was to begin on the first Monday in August, the day of election for the State officers.  This conspiracy is aided and abetted by abolition emissaries from the North, and by those in our midst.
               
The details of the plot and its modus operandi, are these:  each county in Northern Texas has a supervisor in the person of a white man, whose name is not given; each county is laid off into districts under the sub-agents of this villain, who control the action of the negroes in the districts, by whom the firing was to be done.  Many of our most prominent citizens were singled out for assassination whenever they made their escape from their burning homes.  Negroes never before suspected, are implicated, and the insurrectionary movement is widespread to an extent truly alarming.  In some places the plan was conceived in every form shocking to the mind, and frightful in its results.  Poisoning was to be added, the old females to be slaughtered along with the men, and the young and handsome women to be parceled out amongst these infamous scoundrels.  They had even gone so far as to designate their choice, and certain ladies had already been selected as the victims of those misguided monsters.
               
Fortunately, the country has been saved from the accomplishment of these horrors; but then, a fearful duty remains for us.  The negroes have been incited to these infernal proceedings by abolitionists, and the emissaries of certain preachers who were expelled from this county last year.  Their agents have been busy amongst us, and many of them have been in our midst.  Some of them have been identified, but have fled from the country; others still remain, to receive a fearful accountability from an outraged and infuriated people.  Nearly a hundred negroes have testified that a large reinforcement of abolitionists are expected on the first of August, and these to be aided by recruits from the Indian tribes, while the Rangers are several hundred miles to the North of us.  It was desired to destroy Dallas, in order that the arms and ammunition of the artillery company might share the same fate.
               
Our jail is filled with the villains, many of whom will be hung and that very soon.  A man was found hung at our neighboring city of Fort Worth, two days ago, believed to be one of those scoundrels who are engaged in this work.  We learn that he had stored away a number of rifles, and the day after he was hung a load of six-shooters passed on to him, but were intercepted.  He was betrayed by one of the gang, and hence his plans were thwarted.  Many others will share his fate.
               
I have never witnessed such times.  We are most profoundly excited.  We go armed day and night, and know not what we shall be called upon to do. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, August 18, 1860, p. 1, c. 6
               
Coaxing Up an Expression.--A brace of lovers anxious to secure each other's shadow ere the substantial faded, stepped into an ambrotype car one day last week, to sit for their pictures.  The lady gave precedence to her swain, who, she said, "had got to be tuck fust and real natural."  He brushed up his tow head of hair, gave a twist or two to his handkerchief, asked his girl if his collar looked about X, and planted himself on the operator's chair, where he assumed the physiognomical characteristics of a poor mortal in a dentist's hands, and about to part with one of his eye teeth.  "Now, dew look purty!" begged the lady, casting on him one of her most languishing glances.
               
The picture was taken, and when produced it reminded the girl, as she expressed it, "jist how Josh looked when he got over the measles!" and as this was not an era in her suitor's history particularly worthy of her commemoration, she insisted that he should stand again.  He obeyed, and she followed him to the chair.
               
The poor fellow tried to follow the indefinite injunction.
               
"La," she said, "why, you look all puckered up!"
               
One direction followed another, but with as little success.  At last, growing impatient and becoming desperate, she resolved to try an expedient which she considered infallible, and exclaimed:
               
"I don't keer if there is folks around!"
               
She enjoined the operator to stand at his camera; she then sat in her feller's lap, placing her harms around his neck, managed to cast a shower of flaxen ringlets as a screen between the operator and her proceedings, which, however, were betrayed by a succession of amorous sounds, which revealed her expedient.  When this billing and cooing had lasted for a few minutes, the cunning girl jumped from Josh's lap, and cried to the astonished operator:
               
"Now you have got him!  Put him through!"
 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, August 18, 1860, p. 2, c. 4

Letter from Dallas.
[Special Correspondence of the Telegraph.]

                                                                                                                Dallas, July 25.
               
Ed. Telegraph.—Three negro men, the leaders in the insurrectionary plot, were executed at this place last Tuesday evening.  One of them, Pat. Jennings, was the man who applied the torch to the town of Dallas, and one of the most prominent of those who were engaged in the work.  Sam. Smith, another and a preacher, was a hardened old scoundrel, and the third—old Cato—has always borne a bad character in this county.  They were taken out of jail, escorted to the place of execution by the military, and, in the presence of a large concourse of people, expiated their crimes as justice demanded.  They betrayed no discomposure in view of the awful fate before them.  Pat positively refused to say anything, and died with as much indifference as if he had been about his ordinary occupation.  With unparalleled nonchalance, he retained his chew of tobacco in his mouth, and died with it there.  They hung about twenty minutes, Pat dying very hard, and the other two without a struggle—the former by asphyxia and the two latter by dislocation of the cervical vertebrae.
               
This is a fearful warning to the rest, who yet may share the same fate.  In Waxahachie, many important developments have been made, and a large amount of poison found in the possession of negroes.  The whole affair will have the most important results.  The dangerous sentiments entertained by some people will be shown up in their naked deformity, stripped of all adventitious coloring.  Men in high places will find a practical interpretation of their political dogmas in the view taken of them by deluded negroes.  The plot to devastate northern Texas is dated from a certain time, and based upon facts calculated to mislead a people no better informed than our negro population.  The danger of suffering negroes to go out to celebrations, to hear political speeches and to hold meetings of their own, is rendered apparent by the developments connected with this matter.  We have learned a lesson, and will profit by it. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, August 18, 1860, p. 3, c. 1
               
We hear by Ed Tucker who is just from Houston, that it is reported there that the towns of Tyler and McKinney have been burnt up. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, August 25, 1860, p. 2, c. 6
               
The Houston Telegraph says:  We are informed that an attempt was made a day or two since to set the town of Owensville, Robertson county, on fire.  The incendiary has been arrested.  The report comes to us direct and appears authentic.  The reported burning of Palestine, Tyler, McKinney and other towns, as well as the reported attempts on half the towns in the interior are not to be believed until they are confirmed.  Palestine, McKinney and Tyler were all safe at latest direct accounts, which are later than any rumor could have brought the truth.
               
The report of the burning of Henderson is confirmed.  Loss $211,500. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, September 1, 1860, p. 3, c. 1
               
How to put up shirt bosoms.—We have heard ladies expressing a desire to know by what process the fine gloss observable on new linens, shirt bosoms, &c., is produced, and in order to gratify them, we subjoin the following recipe for making Gum Arabic Starch:
               
Take two ounces of fine white gum arabic powder—put it into a pitcher, and pour on it a pint of more of boiling water (according to the degree of strength you desire,) and then having covered it, let it set all night.  In the morning pour it carefully from the dregs into a clean bottle, cork it, and keep it for use.  A table spoonful of gum water poured into a pint of starch made in the usual manner, will give to lawns, (either white or printed) a look of newness, when nothing else can restore them after washing.  It is also good (much diluted) for thin white muslin and bobinet. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, September 8, 1860, p. 1, c. 7
               
Hard Butter Without Ice.—To have delightfully hard butter in summer, without ice, the plan recommended by that excellent and useful publication, the Scientific American, is a good one.  Put a trivet, or any open flat thing with legs, in a saucer; put on this trivet the plate of butter; fill the saucer with water; turn a common flower-pot over the butter, so that its edge shall be within the saucer and under the water; plug the flower-pot with a cork, then drench the flower-pot with water; set in a cool place until morning, or if done at breakfast the butter will be very hard by supper time.  How many of our town boarding-school girls, who have been learning philosophy, astronomy, syntax and prosody, can write an explanation of this within a month. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, November 21, 1860, p. 3, c. 1
               
We noticed a good many ladies in attendance at the meeting on Saturday.  They seemed deeply interested in the events of the times.  The patriotism of our revolutionary mothers has again returned. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, November 28, 1860, p. 2, c. 2
               
The blue cockade has made its appearance on our streets, and is worn by numbers of our citizens.  It consists of a neat blue rosette, pinned to the hat, having a silver five-pointed star in the centre.  It means that the wearers pledge their lives, their fortunes and their sacred honor to resistance to abolition encroachments, and that they can see no way of successful resistance but in the withdrawel [sic] of their State from the Union.—Tel. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, November 28, 1860, p. 2, c. 2
               
The flag that waved in the thick of the fight at San Jacinto, was yesterday flung to the breeze from the tallest flag staff in the city, in token of the love which many of our citizens feel for the "Lone Star," and their wish to see it again take its place independently among the nations of the earth.—Houston Telegraph. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, December 12, 1860,  p. 2, c. 2-3

The Lone Star Flag

                Messrs. Editors:--In your Almanac for 1861, is an article on the subject of the "Flag of the Lone Star."  The following facts may be worthy of note.
               
Early in April 1836, Commodore Hawkins, the senior officer of the Navy of Texas, made an official visit to Harrisburg, then the seat of government of the infant Republic.  He submitted to the President a flag for the marine of Texas, which was adopted without alteration.
               
This led to a discussion by the President and Cabinet, of the propriety of adopting a suitable national banner.  The idea of the "Lone Star" was not new.  Where it originated was among the legends of the past.
               
The Vice-President, Zavala, submitted a device, representing the hill country of Texas, at the staff, with the several principal streams of water flowing from their fountains to the Gulf, a resemblance of which formed the centre margin of the flag.
               
President Burnet objected to this as too complex; and suggested as more simple, conspicuous and representative.  "An azure ground with a golden star central."  It was simple expressive and easily discriminated; and was formally adopted by the government as the national standard of Texas.
               
The hurry and confusion of the times—the want of means of publication, and the impossibility of procuring this Flag's fabrication, prevented its practical introduction.  But there are not sufficient considerations why it should not be regarded as the legitimate National Flag of Texas.
                                                                                               
One Who Was Present. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, December 19, 1860, p. 2, c. 1
               
Gen. Portis addressed a considerable meeting at Millheim yesterday, on the subject of the present crisis.  The Lone Star flag was flung to the breeze. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, December 26, 1860,  p. 1, c. 2

                                The Lone Star Flag.
                               
by H. L. Flash. 

Up with the Lone Star banner!
               
Its hues are still as bright,
As when its glories braved the breeze
               
At San Jacinto's fight;
Its fluttering folds in triumph waved
               
O'er many a gory brow—
The freedom that was conquered then,
               
Will not be yielded now. 

The honor of that Lone Star flag
               
That flouts the blue above,
Is held as dear by Texan hearts,
               
As that of her they love;
As not a stain shall dim its hues,
               
While yet a man remains
To save this flower-girdled land,
               
From the ignominious chains. 

That banner with the single Star,
               
Is Freedom's favored sign;
Beneath its unpolluted folds,
               
Her purest glories shine;
And in the whirlwind and the storm,
               
Amid the crash and jar,
Her brightest hope still rests upon
               
That solitary Star. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, December 26, 1860, p. 3, c. 1
               
On Monday night the boys had a great time, shooting and firing off crackers.  On Tuesday many of our business men found their signs gone, and different ones in their places.  This is bad business, boys.  We wish you would not do so.  The editor, however returns his thanks to them for their regard in letting his things alone.  The boys have always treated us well. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, January 16, 1861, p. 1, c. 2

                                [From the Galveston News.]
                                               
Our Flag.
                               
By W. M. Johnson. 

Hurra!—For our flag, with its golden star,
Which has fluttered so oft o'er the tide of war,
Is again afloat on the breeze of morn,
And another hope to the world is born.
Hurra!—for again o'er oils unrolled,
Thy field of blue with its star of gold—
                               
Flag of the free! 

The "men in buckskin" again are out,
They rally around thee with cheer and shout.
Hurra!—they have grasped the rifle and blade,
They gather again to their country's aid
As they stood before on the Rio Grande,
Beneath thy shadow once more they stand—
                                               
Flag of the free! 

Hurra!—fling it forth to the breeze once more,
As it danced o'er our hosts in the days of yore,
When at San Jacinto the blood ran red,
When Mexico's bravest had turned and fled;
Old hearts beat high, and old eyes grow bright
As they view thee glitter in glorious light—
                                               
Flag of the free! 

Hurra for the flag of the Lone Star State!
May victory still on thy pathway wait,
Striking terror to cowards—the guide of the brave;
And when he shall fall 'neath the battle cloud,
Be the patriot soldier's coffin and shroud—
                                               
Flag of the free! 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, January 16, 1861, p. 1, c. 7
               
A Good Hit Back.—Word was sent by Mr. H.--- a defeated candidate, to a married lady, who was supposed to have changed the expected vote of her husband on election day to the opposite party, to the following effect:  "Go and tell Mrs.—that I will send her by first opportunity, a pair of pantaloons, for her political services.  "Go and tell Mr. H----" was the reply, "to send them along at once.  Don't forget to tell him that I want a new pair—not a pair that his wife has worn out." 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, January 16, 1861, p. 2, c. 1
               
A Society of Ladies has been formed in Ellis County, this State, who are pledged to wear only goods of Southern manufacture.  It is called the "Home Spun Society." 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, January 16, 1861, p. 2, c. 1
               
The Hempstead Pottery is one of the greatest institutions of Austin County.  Mr. Knox is doing a great public benefit by manufacturing the wares he does in this county.  We would advise our merchants to replenish direct from the pottery.  The manner of making jugs and such vessels, is very curious, yet simple.  Those who have never seen it done, have now an opportunity of satisfying their curiosity.  We have specimens of the ware in our office.  The glazing on this ware is superior to any we have seen.  We hope all our citizens will encourage the enterprise. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, January 23, 1861, p. 2, c. 1
               
The Lone Star flag is floating at New Braunfels, and the Germans of Comal county are represented as zealously in favor of Secession. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, January 23, 1861, p. 2, c. 4-5
               
We cut the following from the Goliad Messenger, of the 12th inst.:
               
There is a cannon in Goliad, which was taken from the fortress at Old Town a few years ago, and as it was spiked, it has been permitted to take the weather as a useless piece of rubbish.
               
Our enthusiastic townsman, A. C. Jones, conceived the idea one day this week of having it drilled out and refitted for use.  He has been successful, and the ancient "baby-waker" has been made to open its mouth to the consternation of the babies generally, and no little amusement of the boys.
               
This cannon is a twelve-pounder and as the figures upon it say, was cast in 1700.  It is a French instrument, and is said to have been brought to Texas by La Salle.
               
Nine balls were drawn out of it besides gravels and sand.  Could it speak, it would, doubtless, depict many a bloody scene, and tell many a tale of woe.
               
It may yet be employed for other purposes, than waking the babies and frightening the children. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, January 23, 1861, p. 2, c. 1
               
The Texas Ranger has again changed hands:  Mr. Ragsdale retiring and Messrs. Lancaster and Drake assuming the editorial chairs.  The Ranger is and always has been a good country paper. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, February 20, 1861, p. 4, c. 1
               
Golden Pie.—Take one lemon; grate the peel, and squeeze the pulp and juice in a bowl—be sure to remove every seed—to which add one teacup of new milk, one tablespoonful of powdered starch, and the yolks of three eggs, well beaten; pour this mixture into a nice paste crust, and bake slowly.  Beat the whites of three eggs to a stiff froth, and when the pie is just done pour it over the top evenly, and return to the oven, just to stiffen, not brown. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, April 10, 1861, p. 1, c. 2.  [Summary:  poem "Helen, Knitting"] 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, May 1, 1861, p. 2, c. 1
               
On Saturday next, John Atkinson will present to the [Atkinson] "Guards," the flag of the Confederate States.  All the members not "gone to the wars" should be present.  The flag has eight stars, one being for "Ole Virginny." 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, May 15, 1861,  p. 2, c. 1

Flag Presentation.

                On Saturday last the "Atkinson Guards" were presented with a flag, by their venerable founder John Atkinson.  He prefaced the presentation with a few remarks the substance of which was about as follows:
               
Gentlemen:  In times like the present, every true patriot should, and I expect does have the good of his country uppermost in his mind.  Genuine patriotism comes up from the heart and makes men feel and act in cases like it is now.  If the news is to be believed, war is now upon us, and we should all stand up like men and show ourselves prepared, and equal to any occasion that may arise.  While we may all hope and pray for peace, yet our country demands that we should all be prepared for war, and if war, the hardest kind of war, and if we are successful we shall then secure peace that will be lasting.  I present you the flag of the Confederate States of America, (applause) hoping you will delight to honor it, and having the courage of your forefathers, I know you will.  Under that flag we must fight, under that flag we must be successful.  Take it, and if necessary, bear it upon the battle field in behalf of your country and your dearest rights.  Take the flag, and if in the hottest of the fight, any one should be tired and lag, when he looks up and sees one of those bright stars or the triple bars, may the sight encourage him to noble deeds for his country.
               
I am an old man, and of course ordinarily can not be expected to go to the field with you and take an active part in the trials, triumphs and perils of the struggle.  But should the times demand it, Old man Atkinson as I am, I will be with you and will do my best to show our enemies that even the gray haired and dim-sighted, in the service of their country can do right good shooting.  The flag is yours. 

                Mr. A. Chesley received the flag in behalf of the company, making in reply to the generous donor, a neat speech thanking him, and promising that in the conflict of battle, that flag should animate them, and at all times, remembering from whom the gift was received, the name of  "John Atkinson" upon the banner, as well as the "Stars and Bars" should ever encourage them in the right, and in upholding the principles of the Constitution and the lasting Independence of the Confederate States of America. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, May 22, 1861, p. 3, c. 5
               
The Goliad Messenger says all persons there, old and young—even including the ladies—are practicing the use of fire arms—therefore Abraham is a gone sucker. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, May 22, 1861, p. 3, c. 2
               
Bandages for the Army.—The following directions may be found useful:
               
The bandages should be of unbleached muslin, of at least seven feet in length, and if possible without seams; they should be from two to three inches in width, not only to be in the smallest compass, and therefore occupy the least space, but because when thus tightly rolled, they are less in the surgeon's way, and very much facilitate his labors; they do not then unroll unless it is desirable.  The lint should be made of linen cloth, scraped or ravelled [sic], but the ravelled [sic] is very much preferable, as it can be more easily removed from the wounds.  The linen should be cut into pieces about three inches square and then ravelled [sic].  These directions are of extreme importance.  Very much labor of the French ladies during the Crimean war was useless, because misapplied.
               
Bandages for ribs, ten yards long, three or four inches wide.
               
For hand or finger, eight yards long, one inch wide.
               
For arm, eight yards long, two inches wide.
               
For leg, eight yards long, two and a half inches wide. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, May 22, 1861, p. 3, c. 2
               
Important to Foot Soldiers.—The following is the best plan to clothe the feet and keep them comfortable:
               
1.  Blistering, burning, soreness and tenderness of the soles of the feet may almost invariably be prevented, even when marching for days together and over a heated road, by soaping the sole of the stocking—that is, covering it with a thin coating of the cheapest brown soap.  This, at the same time, keeps the skin of the sole cool, hardens it, and prevents inflammation.   Coarse cotton socks are the best for walking.
               
2.  Don't wear woolen socks when marching, not even thin ones, no matter in what climate.
               
3.  The boot or shoe should have a thick sole; it is not sufficient that they should be simply "double soled."  The soles should be at least half an inch thick; if three-fourths of an inch or an inch all the better; they are more expensive, but if well made will last a long time, and even in the warmest weather will be found easy to walk in, feet easily becoming accustomed to their weight. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, May 22, 1861, p. 3, c. 3
               
Advice to Volunteers.—A writer, who signs himself "An Old Soldier," gives the following advice to young soldiers:
               
1.  Remember that in a campaign more men die from sickness than the bullet.
               
2.  Line your blanket with one thickness of brown drilling.  This adds but four ounces in weight, and doubles the warmth.
               
3.  Buy a small India rubber blanket, to lay on the ground or to throw over your shoulders when on guard duty during a rain storm.  Most of the eastern troops are provided with these.  Straw to lie on is not always to be had.
               
4.  The best military hat in use is the light colored soft felt; the crown being sufficiently high to allow space for air over the brain.  You can fasten it up as a continental in fair weather, or turn it down when it is wet or very sunny.
               
5.  Let your beard grow so as to protect the throat and lung.
               
6.  Keep your entire person clean; this prevents fevers and bowel complaints in warm climates.  Wash your body each day if possible.
               
7.  A sudden check of perspiration by chilly or night air often causes fever and death.  When thus exposed do not forget your blanket. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, June 5, 1861, p. 2, c. 3

The Boys Moving.

                R. A. Williams of Fayetteville communicates to the True Issue, the fact of the male students of the academy at Fayetteville having formed a military company, and the presentation of a flag by the female students of the school to these "Academy Guards."  Capt. John P. Bell is a son of Hon. A. J. Bell of this county.  The addresses delivered on the occasion are neat, modest and patriotic.  The readers of the Countryman will no doubt be gratified to read these addresses, especially the response of our young friend, Capt. Bell, and to learn that he has been honored with the first station in the company.

Address
of
Miss Mary B. Breeding.

                "Academy Guards:"  Suffer me, in behalf of, and in the name of the young ladies of this school, to present to your youthful band this stand of colors wrought with our own hands.
               
It is true that you are young, and some of you not sufficiently matured to take the tented field, yet your chivalry shows that when older, you will respond, like true Texas boys, to your country's call.  Our fathers are "passing away," and some have gone to "that bourn from whence no traveler returns."  They, amid peril, hunger, thirst and withal with no place upon which to lay their weary heads, fought for, and gained the independence of Texas.  And the name of a "Texas Ranger" strikes terror into the heart of a Mexican or an Indian to this day.  Then let us not bury chivalry with our fathers, but let their sons, Phoenix like, rise from their ashes and crush out all their country's foes.  Leonidas, with his Spartan band, could not defend the fatal pass, but they could die for their country, and so can Texas boys.  A Texas mother, wife or sister, had rather know that the son, husband or brother, lay beneath the cold sod pierced by many bullets, than to know that his cheek blanched or that he turned back to the foe and let his colors trail in the dust.
               
Then take these colors, maintain the blood-bought honor of your fathers, or never return to us. 

Response
of
Capt. Jno. P. Bell.

                Miss:  In accepting this beautiful stand of colors at your hands, I feel and know, that I express the voice of the whole company, when I say that we are profoundly grateful and highly flattered, both for the colors and the good and wholesome advice you give us.  But be assured that the stout hearts that stand before you will not suffer these colors to trail in the dust while one strong arm remains to defend them; and we crave of you, like the Spartan woman of old, to disgrace the man who lives to tell the tale of our defeat.  His negro-worshiping majesty, at Washington city, is endeaving [sic] to coerce the South into submission; and Texas, the empire State, appears to have peculiar charms for his sable worshipping highness.  But he must recollect that it took ancient Greece ten years to take Troy, and Texas will fight ten times ten years, or suffer the last man to fall rather than submit to negro worship, fanaticism, free-love, woman's rights, and all the other isms, rights, &c., claimed by the North.  We do not boast of our valor, but simply say to his highness, come and take us.  At one time we were divided upon political issues, but when aggression comes, the whole South is a unit, and when it is conquered, there will be but few Yankees left.  With woman's smiles and counsels, brave hearts and strong arms are invincible! 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, June 5, 1861, p. 3, c. 1
               
The editor of the Fairfield Pioneer is endeavoring to make up a company of cadets—boys over ten and under eighteen years of age.  A good idea. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, June 5, 1861, p. 4, c. 2
               
Water muffins.—Sift one quart of flour; add one teaspoonful of salt; make a batter with tepid water, putting first into the flour two teaspoonful of cream tartar; when just ready to bake, add one teaspoonful of car soda [sic?], dissolved.  Bake on a griddle, in rings. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, June 12, 1861, p. 2, c. 1
               
We are under the necessity of issuing but a half sheet this week.  It is well to recollect that paper is very scarce, and that unless the blockade is raised before long, many newspapers will have to suspend for want of the article, as we understand there is none or very little for sale in Houston or Galveston.  The Countryman will be as tenacious of life as any of them. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, June 12, 1861, p. 2. c. 1
               
The last link is broken.  Our mails are now carried by the Confederate States. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, June 12, 1861, p. 2, c. 4
               
Hurrah for the Ladies.—in Mississippi, and some other of the Confederate States, and even in some parts of Texas, the ladies are banding together for the purpose of drilling and practising [sic] the use of firearms, resolving, if necessary, to send the men off to fight, while they stay at home to protect their firesides from the incursions of hostile Indians or Abolitionists.  At one or two places in Mississippi they have perfected themselves in the drill and manual of arms of the soldier, and declare their intention also to attend to the crops, while the males are away.  This is PURE patriotism, and their action cannot be too highly lauded.  We do not imagine the fair sex of our section behind any in their love of country, and should like to see such a movement set on foot.  Who will put the ball in motion?  Instances were common in our early history of the daring deeds performed by women, the heroic mothers of liberty.  Though there may be no necessity the experiment can do no harm. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, June 12, 1861, p. 2, c. 6
               
The times are so hard, that many families have taken to drinking coffee but once a day.  It is a good time to retrench and reform, when you can't help it. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, June 12, 1861, p. 2, c. 6
               
What are we going to do for seed potatoes, if the blockade continues?  Would it not be well to look after some of our own growing?  The same may be said of garden seeds generally.  If we can learn to provide these things at home, the blockade will be truly a blessing to Texas, ultimately. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, June 19, 1861, p. 2, c. 1
               
The editor of the Brenham Enquirer learned in Galveston, that paper was expected to arrive from England, in November next, as orders for that article had been forwarded.  The Enquirer will be issued on a half sheet until Christmas. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, June 19, 1861, p. 2, c. 2
               
Texas Girls in Kentucky.—We are permitted to copy the following petition dated the 15th ult., sent by six young Texas ladies, at school in Kentucky, to their parents in Texas.  We omit names.
               
Whereas, we, the undersigned, being true Southern girls, are most grievously dissatisfied with our condition in this, a Union, and we believe an Abolition State; and moreover, she has refused to join our beloved Southern Confederacy; but does prefer to be ruled over by the Black-hearted Abraham Lincoln, and doth denounce the noble Jeff. Davis as a black-hearted traitor; and as our feelings are cruelly wounded by the frequent uncivil remarks of our teachers and schoolmates; and as we do most earnestly desire to get into our own Confederacy, and under our own flag—we do most earnestly entreat our parents, relations or friends, to come, send, or write for us to come home forthwith.  Galveston News

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, June 19, 1861, p. 2, c. 1

Seasonable Hints about Personal Comfort.

                A thin shawl may be made warm by folding a newspaper inside of it.  The paper is impervious to the wind and cold air from outside, and prevents the rapid escape of the warm air beneath it.  Every one knows that the heat of the body is carried off much more rapidly in a high wind than in a calm.  The wind blows away the heat envolved [sic] from the body, but in a perfectly still calm this heat remains, and constitutes an atmospheric envelope so nearly of the same temperature with the body itself that the latter is not so quickly robbed of the natural heat.
               
A piece of silk oil cloth, stitched in the folds of a shawl, is more flexible than the paper, and will last a whole winter.  It has the advantage of securing inward warmth without the additional weight of a thicker garment.
               
When you set out on a winter journey, if you are liable to suffer from cold toes, which many people do in spite of "rubbers," fold a piece of newspaper over your stockings, which you can readily do, if your boots and shoes are not irrationally tight.  This is better than 'rubbers,' which are, in fact, very cold comforters in extreme, while they make the feet sweat in moderate weather.  The main use of India rubber overshoes is to keep out water, and for that they are second only to a stout, waterproof, first-rate calf-skin boot.  There is not a more villainously unwholesome article of wear made than the hightopped rubber boot.  It makes the foot tender, especially in children, gives an ugly gait, and when left off in any weather, the wearer is liable to catch cold.  Saint Crispin is the best friend of the human foot, when his leather and stitches are honest.
               
The constitutional vivacity and temper of a person has much to do with his endurance of cold, for his vivacity is a sort of nervous fire that lessons the sensibility to outward impressions.  An indifferent milk and water person, without energy and force, is at the mercy of every cold blast that sweeps the corner.  He, and especially she, has no defence [sic] but to wear a dozen shawls during the day, and sleep under a bale of blankets at night.  One without any mental purpose, (unfortunately there are such,) though in vigorous health, is much more liable to catch cold than a spirited delicate body bent on some positive pursuit. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, June 26, 1861, p. 1, c. 7
               
To Clean Glass.—Common newspaper is one of the best articles.  The chemical operation of some ingredient of the printing ink gives a beautiful polish.  Slightly moisten a piece of paper; roll it up and rub the glass; then take a dry, soft piece and repeat the process.  No lint will remain, as in the case of using cloth.
               
Bites and Stings.—Apply instantly, with a soft rag, most freely, spirits of hartshorn.  The venom of stings being an acid the alkali nullifies them.  Fresh wood ashes, moistened with water, and made into a poultice, frequently renewed, is an excellent substitute—or soda or salaratus—all being alkalies.
               
To Take Out Thorns or Splinters.—Make a plaster of turpentine and tallow, spread on a piece of leather and apply it to the wound. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, June 26, 1861, p. 2, c. 1
               
We have been waiting for some time for the ladies to present the Countryman with that Confederate flag, to fling to the breeze on public occasions.  As they seem to be slow about it, we shall have to make one ourselves, though we are not a very good hand with a needle, and have no patent sewing machine.  Our "devil" expects to make a speech on the occasion of raising the flag over the Countryman building. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, June 26, 1861, p. 2, c. 6
               
An india rubber factory is about to be established in Charleston. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, June 26, 1861, p. 3, c. 1
               
  A globule of belladonna, taken every morning, by each and every member of a family—adults, children, servants and all inmates—will prevent the spread of scarlet fever in every household that may adopt it, as certainly as vaccination will prevent small pox. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, June 26, 1861, p. 4, c. 1
               
New Use for Hoops.—A correspondent of the Cincinnatti [sic] Enquirer writes the following:
               
Woman, Pistols and Strategy!—Abolition Republicans are frightened at the shadow of a ghost, as was Lieutenant Jones at Harper's Ferry and Commodore Pendergrast at Norfolk, the proof of which is now historic record.  Let such men know that a fierce and bloody encounter awaits them, when I tell you that over two hundred of the finest Colt's revolvers I ever saw have been purchased in Cincinnati, at various times and places within the last two weeks, (no thanks to the Eggleston vigilance mob) and conveyed out of the city under the hoops [of] one of the fairest and most distinguished of Kentucky's daughters, and sent by trusty agents to her friends in the interior of the State.  Oh, crinoline, thou art a jewel!
                                                                                                               
A Kentucky Subscriber. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, July 3, 1861, p. 1, c. 7
               
Boys Out at Night.—The practice of allowing boys to spend their evenings on the streets is one of the most ruinous, dangerous and mischievous things possible.  Nothing so speedily and surely makes their course downward.  They acquire under cover of the night, an unhealthy state of the mind, vulgar and profane language, obscene practices, criminal sentiments, and a lawless and riotous bearing.  Indeed, it is in the streets after nightfall that the boys generally acquire the education of the bad and the capacity for becoming rowdy, dissolute, criminal men.  Parents, do you believe it?  Will you keep your children at home at night, and see that their home is made pleasant and profitable?—Genessee Republican.
               
It is seldom that more truth is compressed into so small a space.  The thousands of boys, belonging to worthy, respectable families, who are permitted, night after night, to select their own company and places of resort, are on the certain road to ruin.  Confiding parents, who believe their sons are safe—that they will associate with the vicious—will one of these days have their hearts crushed, as thousands have before, by learning that their sons, whom they regarded as proof against any evil, have been, from very early years, on the road to ruin.  Keep your boys home at night, unless you accompany them yourself.—Rochester Democrat. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, July 3, 1861, p. 1, c. 7
               
Company drill.—At a recent large gathering of volunteers in a Southern State, where field operations were performed as if in sight of an enemy, the general officer in command made a short speech to the men, which is very apropos just now.
               
"All that you have heard in the way of shooting, all your zeal and patriotism, will be of no avail in the day of battle without a thorough knowledge of company drill.  Where the men in each company are steady and well drilled, the whole army will be steady and well drilled likewise.  To have a battalion or brigade act like a machine is to be effected only by company drill."
               
And he might have added that to have a well drilled company, each man must first go through a thorough course of drilling in the "school of a soldier," or of equal drill.  Simple as it may seem, unless each man knows how to 'keep step'—'to dress to the right' or 'to the left'—to face properly—to 'keep proper distance in ranks'—to step the same length of step, whether in common, quick or double quick time, etc., the company cannot as a company manoeuvre correctly.  Two or three deficient members spoil the appearance of an otherwise good company, and embarrass its movements.  To endeavor to drill a company, as such, ere its members have learned individually what they must know to be a good soldier, is like teaching a boy geometry before he knows what arithmetic. is.—News. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, July 3, 1861, p. 3, c. 1
               
The Texas Ranger comes to us again as a full sheet as fresh and blooming as ever.  We are issuing full sheets to subscribers, and half sheets to exchanges. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, July 10, 186, p. 2, c. 3

Flags.

                We notice in the New Orleans Delta, a good article on the subject of flags.  Complaint has been made on account of spending so much money for these emblems, when it might be much more usefully appropriated.  Flags are quite useless in the hour of battle, and are rarely borne on such occasions in modern warfare.  The French and the English dispense with them on the battle field.  A flag on such an occasion requires the services of one man to bear it, and makes one less to do the fighting, and that one usually the best fighting man of the regiment or company.  The flag bearer becomes a target for the enemy, more prominent than any other.  The soldiers in the service of their country need, and will continue to need all the money that can be spared, to buy shoes, blankets, clothes and food.  The Delta says the money expended in New Orleans in flags and flag presentations, since the war commenced, would have been sufficient to buy extra pairs of shoes for the whole force of the State of Louisiana.  If the color is to be regarded as the rallying sign, when it is cut down, (as often happens in battle,) hesitation, alarm and disorder arise among even brave men.
               
The Delta recalls the incidents of the Palmetto Flag at Churubusco, as follows:
               
The regimental colors on this occasion were entrusted to a gallant soldier named Canty, who was killed early in the action.  Col. Butler then seized the colors, and bearing them at the head of the column, was shot through the head; then Lieut. Col. Dickenson, seized them, and taking the place of the Colonel, received a mortal wound, when he handed the colors to Major Gladden.  This officer, as brave and heroic a man as ever led a column, is also a soldier of great practical sense and judgment, and very little of a sentimentalist.  Major Gladden having the command of the regiment thrown upon him in the very crisis of the battle, had no time to give to a broken flag staff, and with admirable good sense, detached the flag from the staff, ordered one of the men, a stalwart soldier, to wrap it around his body; not so, however, as to prevent his using his arms.  The man to whom the flag had been thus committed, rushed ahead, and inspired by the high trust reposed in him, performed prodigies of valor, whilst the Major, relieved of the labor and responsibility which had already deprived the regiment of its two highest officers, was enabled to give his whole attention to the order of his regiment, and to direct the charging column so as to ensure a glorious victory.
               
In this connection, it might be well to remark that the most of the flags we have seen are made too large to be carried on parade.  A small flag, not larger than two feet by four, with a light flag staff, is heavy enough for parade, and does not weary the person who carries it; and for company drill and parade looks much better than some of the larger ones we have seen. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, July 10, 1861, p. 2, c. 4

The Fourth.

                We passed the 4th very pleasantly at the barbecue near Mrs. Bracey's.  Through some mistake in the editor, printer or devil, it was stated that it would be held in 'Possum Bend, by which we were doing great injustice to the habitants of a different and wealthy portion of Austin county, who do rejoice in the cognomen aforesaid.  All hands apologize for the error, and hope they may have the honor, on a future occasion, of meeting the people of 'Possum Bend at a gathering in that portion of the county.  But we wanted to say something about the barbecue.
               
Well, it was one of the most agreeable we have attended in a long time.  Beef, mutton, and pig, and a lot of fine things to gratify the appetite, were spread with a rich profusion, equaled only by the liberality of the settlement.  After the ladies, the military, the boys and the citizens had got their "fill," the crowd repaired to a well constructed and comfortable arbor, when the exercises commenced, by reading the Declaration of Independence, a thing that was well performed by A. Chesley, Esq.
               
Loud calls being made for Z. Hunt, Esq., that gentleman came forward and made one of the best extemporaneous addresses we have heard in a long time.  It was completely utilitarian in all its parts, principally having reference to the war in which the nation is now engaged, and the best means of being prepared for the struggle.  Patriotism, a deep, heart-felt devotion to the interests and success of the Confederate States, was prominent throughout the address, and the frequent rapturous applause of the assembly, evinced the fact that the sentiments of the speaker met a hearty response in the hearts of all.  This was the speech of the day.
               
After that came Col. Paine, H. H. Boone, W. O. Campbell, Watts Cameron, of Cass county, A. Chesley and others, all of whom did well, abundantly well, in their respective brief remarks.  Judge N. I. Chappell acted as Marshal of the Day, doing the thing up in a manner such as the Judge, and he only, can do it.  Taking it all in all, by and large, great and small, big and little, we think everybody dispersed satisfied with the enjoyments of the day.
               
At night there was a party and a dance in the neighborhood.  We can't dance, so we did not attend.  We are informed, however, that they got along just as well without us, and that everything passed off as harmoniously as though we had been there, and we have no doubt of it. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, July 10, 1861, p. 2, c. 5-6
               
Miss Augusta Evans, author of "Beulah" has been at the Southern camp at Norfolk, cheering the men in their honorable cause.
               
Dies for the new coin of the Confederate States have been received at Dahlonega.  No more United States coin will be struck off.
               
A churn factory has been established at Charleston, South Carolina.—butter is worth from 50 to 75 cents per pound in New Orleans.  Flour has fallen a dollar and a half, and beef is cheaper in New Orleans than it has been for ten years.
               
Capt. John Travis is drilling a class of ladies in pistol shooting, in Vicksburg, Miss., with much success. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, July 10, 1861, p. 2, c. 1
               
A flag presented to the Galveston Zouaves recently, was consecrated in the Catholic church of that city, by the Rev. Mr. Chambadeau.  The News says the ceremony was simple but impressive.  "The Rev. Father recited a few prayers in latin, sprinkled the flag with holy water, and delivered a brief and excellent address, first to the company in French, and then to the assembly in English.  His remarks were conceived in a spirit of piety and patriotism. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, July 10, 1861, p. 4, c. 2
               
Making Vinegar.—To eight gallons of clear rain water add three quarts of molasses; put into a good cask; shake well a few times, then add two or three spoonfuls of good yeast cakes.  If in summer, place the cask in the sun; if in winter, near the chimney, where it may warm.  In ten or fifteen days add to this liquid a sheet of brown paper, town in strips, dipped in molasses, and good vinegar will be produced.  The paper will, in this way, form what is called the "mother," or life of vinegar.—Genessee Farmer.
               
Parsley.—Parsley may be preserved through the whole season, and in every climate, by the following process:  pull or cut your parsley when full grown, hang it up to dry, and when wanted for use, rub a little of it betwixt the palms of the hand, put it in the pot, and it will immediately resume its smell, flavor and color, although it may have been kept for years. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, July 17, 1861, p. 2, c. 1
               
We attended the barbecue near Travis on Saturday last, and were much pleased with the manner in which things generally were conducted.  There were four uniformed military companies there, who were formed into a battalion and went through considerable of the drill under Col. Paine.  A flag with a neat address by Miss Pier on the part of the ladies, was presented to the Buffalo Blues.  Dr. Francis gracefully received it making a patriotic speech in reply. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, July 17, 1861, p. 2, c. 1
               
Good.—The ladies of Columbus have formed an association to raise funds to equip a company for the war, but if the funds so raised are not appropriated to the use of the  troops of Colorado county, then the same shall be forwarded to Gov. Clark, to be used at his discretion. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, July 17, 1861, p. 2, c. 2
               
We copy the following from the Galveston Civilian.  It is very appropriate at this time:
               
The Christian Advocate appears on a half sheet, though without proportionate diminution of interesting reading matter.  The scarcity of paper and of paying subscribers begins to tell on the newspaper business, and we fear that many papers will not stop the curtailing process at a half sheet.  The Richmond Reporter gives its present issue the name of the Half Loaf, though we doubt not the ample crops of Fort Bend county will keep the publishers fully supplied with the staff of life.  No people appreciate newspapers more highly than the citizens of Texas; and we trust that they will not neglect to sustain the press in the present crisis.  Good names on a list of subscribers will not do this.  It requires money, or something that will sustain life.  Country publishers can use much of the produce of the farm and workshop in lieu of money; and subscribers should make it a point to contribute such aid as is in their power, without waiting for that common bore, the dun, alike unpleasant to those who give and those who receive it. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, July 24, 1861, p. 1, c. 2

                                                                                                [From the Raleigh Standard.

Lines
Addresses to the first Regiment of
North Carolina Volunteers.
by Leola. 

We miss you from the cottage-door,
               
We miss you from the lordly hall,
And bitter tears at parting shed,
               
Our loved ones yet in silence fall.
We miss you at the morning prayer,
               
We miss you at the noon-day meal,
And yearning hearts to you go forth
               
When twilight shades around us steal. 

The fond young bride all tearfully
               
Turns from the cottage-door away,
Where still she goes, alas! in vain—
               
To meet her love at close of day.
And o'er her helpless little flock
               
Does many a wife in silence bend!
With heart too full for words she pleads
               
That God would peace and safety send. 

The widow's heart in broken prayers,
               
Follows alike through night and day,
The prop of her declining years—
               
Her absent boy, far, far away!
The blushing maiden fondly dwells
               
Upon the parting moment, sad,
And prays that Heaven, in camp and field,
               
Would bless and shield her soldier lad. 

Ah yes, we miss you, yet no heart
               
In all the thousand homes you've left,
It matters not how deeply tried,
               
It matters not how much bereft,
Would bring a son or brother home—
               
Husband or lover would recall;
No! rather on the battle field
               
In duty's path we'd have you fall! 

On, on, brave hearts, your cause is just
               
And right—and justice must prevail;
As soon might straws attempt to stay
               
The torrent wild—the sweeping gale—
As hirelings of the North drive back
               
Men with such hands and hearts as yours
Go meet the invaders at their camp—
               
Let not their feet defile our shores! 

Woe to the craven who shall fail
               
Our country in the hour of need;
Who turns a deafened ear away
               
And will not to her rescue speed,
Not to the swift the race is due—
               
The victory given to the strong—
The "God of battles" is our trust,
               
We and our cause to him belong;
There is no word for you like "fail,"
               
They never, never can subdue
Your gallant band if you to God,
               
Your country and yourselves are true! 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, July 24, 1861, p. 2, c. 1

Sisters—Arouse!

                A number of the ladies of Bellville and vicinity, actuated by that nobility of purpose which characterized their mothers in like circumstances, and which is now moving to action the sisterhood of all parts of our young confederacy, earnestly desire the loyal and patriotic of their sex to meet them at 4 o'clock on Friday afternoon next, the 26th inst., for the purpose of organizing a "LADIES' AID SOCIETY."  Gentlemen have kindly volunteered to put the Court House in order for the meeting, and I conjure all of the sex, who have a desire to contribute their mite of aid in our struggle for freedom, to be in attendance on Friday evening next.  We can organize and appoint suitable persons to receive donations, either in money or the raw material, to be converted by us into clothing, knapsacks or tents for our volunteers, and even the younger girls can do some good by picking lint for the use of the wounded.
               
There are numbers of young men in our midst ready to volunteer, but too needy to purchase an outfit.  This shall be our accepted task, as it is our bounden duty.  Let those who have means contribute, and let us all work.  Nature's God has wisely, no doubt, denied our sex the privilege of bearing arms and mixing in the turmoil of battle strife, then let our nimble fingers and ready purses atone for the deficiency, by promptly furnishing our brave men with the necessary appliances in our power for camp life.  It is for us that they brave the dangers and horrors of the battle field—it is for us they accept the toils and hardships of the soldier's life—it is for us they go forth to meet the ruthless assassins of the North—and it is for us to contribute, by every means in our power, to the accomplishment of the independence of our infant confederacy.  Let no false modesty, no flimsy excuse of "can't spare time," deter us from action, but ALL come forward, and enter heart and hand into the needful work.  I trust there will be a good attendance of our patriot women at the Court House, on Friday next.
               
Respectfully submitted,
                                                                               
                                RACHEL. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, July 24, 1861, p. 3, c. 3
               
The Texas Baptist comes to us with the valedictory of J. A. Kimball as editor.  The Baptist is to be suspended for want of support. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, July 31, 1861, p. 2, c. 1
               
The ladies met on Friday at the Court House and organized a "Sewing Society," by electing Mrs. R. Chambers, President; Mrs. W. I. Cocke, Sec'y; Mrs. J. P. Osterhout, Treasurer.  The Society meets again this evening. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, July 31, 1861, p. 2, c. 3
               
The citizens of Port Lavaca, says the Victoria Advocate, have established a foundry for casting cannon, and also procured machinery for the manufacture of small arms.  An old nine pounder, long located in Victoria, has been sent down there to be rifled.
               
The Reagan Guards and Texas Guards, from Anderson county, Texas, arrived in New Orleans on the 8th

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, July 31, 1861, p. 2, c. 4

Mill Creek Neighborhood

                                                                                                                                July 29, 1861.
. . . According to previous notice, the ladies met at our church on Saturday last, and associated themselves together for the purpose of assisting the soldiers in their efforts to gain the independence of the South.  The society is christened the Mill Creek Soldiers' Aid Society.  The meeting was organized by electing Mrs. A. Daughtry, President; Mrs. Bouldin, Vice President; Miss Elizabeth Manly, Secretary; Miss Mary Jane Bethany, Assistant Secretary, and Miss Sarah Sullivan, Treasurer.  After which they adjourned to meet again on the first Monday in August.  So you see, Mr. Editor, the ladies of the Forks of Mill Creek have taken a step in the right direction, which they always do when necessary.  Will not the ladies in all the other neighborhoods do likewise?
               
Mr. Countryman, it would do you good to see with what patriotic zeal the ladies have taken hold of this all important matter, but it would also have done you good to have been there, and partaken of the fine collation spread by the ladies, for all who would come and eat.  It is unnecessary for me to say more about it, for you well recollect the dinner that was given in this neighborhood a little over a year ago.  This dinner was superior to that, from the fact that only the ladies had anything to do with it.
               
The action of the ladies has made the gentlemen a little more patriotic; therefore, you need not be surprised to hear of the majority of our company volunteering to drive back Lincoln's myrmidons, if they should dare contaminate Texas soil by the touch of their unhallowed feet.
               
Madam Rumor says the ladies of this neighborhood are going to form a company for the protection of such young men as will not volunteer to assist their country in gaining its independence.
                                                                                               
One of the Mill Creek Guards. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, July 31, 1861, p. 2, c. 6

Banner Presentation at Pittsville.

                We have been requested by a committee at Pittsville, which is near the line of Austin and Fort Bend counties, to insert the following address, delivered recently by Miss M. J. Hedgpeth, to the Pittsville Home Guards.
               
Gentlemen of the Pittsville Home Guards!—In behalf of the ladies of the neighborhood I stand here to present to you a banner, the emblem of your country's nationality.  It is in no peaceful times that we make you the recipients of such an emblem, nor is it a mere display, an empty pageant, but the stern reality of an impending conflict, in which our dearest rights as freemen are involved, renders the occasion to us all, replete with the deepest interest and throws around it all the solemnity of feeling and of thought.  We are, gentlemen, on the threshold of a new epoch which has been ushered in with storm and tempest.  Already has the lightning flashed and the thunders of battle reverberated on the Southern breeze which hitherto was vocal only with the melody of peace.  We see too plainly, in the dim distance, the coercive arm of power raised threateningly against us, not to believe that the future, which is but a step in advance, is fraught with responsibilities to startle and arouse.  Then it behooves you to gird yourselves well for the contest, and meet them like men, intelligently and resolutely.  The ladies in this vicinage are deeply sensible of the emergency at hand, and have delegated me to give expression to the interest felt, by the presentation of this banner.  It is not the stars and stripes under which Southern hearts have so often braved death for honor.  No, we stand today beneath the folds of a flag symbolical of a new covenant, one that lately has received a baptism with the spirit of perfect freedom, and one which, from the depths of our hearts, we believe consecrated by the great Jehovah to success.  In placing this glorious emblem at the head of your column, we [illegible] for a moment, consider duty's debt discharged.  We are fully sensible that there are hardships to be endured, dangers to be undergone, difficulties to be surmounted; but believe us, when we declare, that the emotions of patriotism which now swell your manly bosoms, find in our hearts emotions in perfect unison, which will give us strength to endure hardships, and firmness to surmount difficulties in this cause of truth and justice, and though we may not give evidence of the existence of such patriotism, by wielding in our weak hands the rough implements of war, yet we will be bounded only by a sphere in which it is our part to move, in our contributions to yours and your country's welfare.  Ours is the task to fit you out for the distant expedition, to cheer your departure with words of hope and promises to pray hourly for your safety, to weep tears of sorrow for those who fall, to wait tenderly around the bed of suffering, and to crown with love and laurels the manly brows of those who return to us as victors.  These duties, I solemnly pledge you, in behalf of the ladies I represent, shall be performed.
               
Receive now, gentlemen of the Guard, this banner which we have prepared for you, from a sense of patriotic duty; carry it where the interest of our beloved country calls, be the ordeal through which it must pass one of fire and blood, but oh, remember when the God of battles shall have crowned your efforts with victory, it is the prayer of those who gave it, that its folds may wave above the heads of those who act responsive to the calls of mercy. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, August 7, 1861, p. 1, c. 7
               
Dippers.—A correspondent of a Georgia paper says:  "We are to have no more Yankee dippers; let me suggest that we all commence the raising of gourds."  Water drinks as sweetly out of a good sweet gourd, as from any thing, if not sweeter; but the Yankees shall not deprive us long of cocoa-nut shells, out of which we can make dippers, if we want them. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, August 7, 1861, p. 2, c. 1
               
The Stars and Bars are now floating over our office.  For this present we are indebted to Mrs. Jane Railey, of this place.  The flag is a neat one, of medium size, and has a star for each Confederate State.  We had thought of publishing a speech that might have been delivered by "our devil" on the occasion of raising the flag, but as flag presentations are becoming so common, we forego giving this choice production to the public, and just leave them to infer what our devil should, or ought to have said on the occasion. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, August 21, 1861, p. 2, c. 1
               
Our War Size.—Until the prospect of getting more paper shall become better, the Countryman will be published at its present size.  We are enabled by this plan to put in more matter than on a half-sheet, and have less margin. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, August 21, 1861, p. 2, c. 3-4

Letter from Dallas County.

[Correspondence of the Countryman.]
                                                                                                               
Lancaster, Aug. 3, 1861.
               
Being in the habit of writing for you occasionally, I shall now endeavor to give you the news of our county, as far as I am posted.
               
War, war, war, is the daily conversation of every lady and gentleman that I meet.  Horrible it is to think of the great trouble that exists in our land, but it has come, and no one can tell where or when it will end.  I don't think that there is any county in the State where patriotism abounds more than in Dallas.  Every little boy of Lancaster may be seen in the streets with stripes on.  They have a company organized, and drill regularly.  Villy Guy, son of Capt. Guy, is their captain.  He is about 14 years of age, and knows as much about military tactics as most of our older captains. . . .
               
On receiving the glorious news of our success in Missouri and Virginia, which has been confirmed several times, and is certainly true, the ladies of the town assembled at the Masonic Hall, (not letting the other sex know what was going on,) and fired the cannons, having elected one gentleman to assist them, accompanied by the beating of drums and loud shouts of every one, even to the little girls who had joined us—some hurrahing for Jeff. Davis and the Southern Confederacy, and some one thing and some another.  Every heart seemed to leap with joy whenever victory was spoken of.  Every clerk, blacksmith, in fact most of the males about the place were not long in joining us.  We marched in procession through the streets, back to the hall, where Capt. Guy made a speech suitable to the occasion.  He was cheered by all sorts of shrieks from the females, from six years old to thirty and upward, after which all retired quietly to their peaceful dwellings. . . .   
                                                                                                                                Nannie Snead. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, August 28, 1861, p. 2, c. 1
               
"T. A.," in the Houston Telegraph, says that a strong tea, made from corn shucks, has been used successfully as an anti-periodic, for the arrest of chills.  It requires several big drinks, at intervals of an hour.  Also, a tea of ripened seedpods of the common cockle-burr, he says, has also been used for the same purpose, when quinine failed to break the chills. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, August 28, 1861, p. 3, c. 1
               
The Corpus Christi Ranchero extra, of the 10th inst., says a large number of wagons from Bastrop arrived there for salt, and were loaded without delay.  The supply is inexhaustible, and Corpus is bound to enjoy an immense trade.  The Ranchero says Clark is largely ahead in that district for Governor.  The publication of the Ranchero is suspended for want of paper. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, August 28, 1861, p. 3, c. 3
               
We, last Wednesday, visited the Foundry, and witnessed the process of making cannon.  We saw one fine 6-pounder run—it was perfect in all its parts, and of beautiful shape.  A large number of balls, six and twelve pound were also run.  There is no telling what a people can do until they try—with material and machinery picked up around town, our enterprising citizens have shown that they can manufacture their own defensive projectiles.—Lavaca Gulf Key. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, September 11, 1861, p. 1, c. 5
               
Tobacco for Disease of the Throat.—The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal makes the following observations in a review of Sir Benjamin Brodie's letter in the London Times, on the "Use and Abuse of  Tobacco:"
               
"There is a local effect of tobacco, when smoked, which we have not as yet seen mentioned, and which, in a therapeutical aspect, may be of considerable importance; we refer to its action in preventing that peculiar condition of the throat which, if neglected, is liable to terminate in follicular inflammation, or what is more properly known as clergyman's sore throat.  It has been said that few, if any, instances of this affection can be found to exist in those in the habit of smoking, and we know of one or two instances where it yielded at once to the potent influence of tobacco.  It most probably acts by allaying commencing irritation, which, if allowed to increase, would end in inflammation; and, perhaps, counteracting any spasmodic condition, of the surrounding muscles— very natural source of trouble in this distressing disease." 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, September 11,1861, p.  2, c. 1
               
The Lagrange True Issue says that the States Rights Democrat of that place has indefinitely suspended.
               
We learn that the Brenham Enquirer has suspended for want of paper, and the Ranger has been removed to Washington.  The Richmond Reporter, alias Half Loaf, has also been suspended. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, October 2, 1861, p. 2, c. 1
               
Mrs. H. B. English, of Bovine Bend, this county, offers to knit six pair socks, and furnish two blankets, "Kentucky make," for the soldiers.  Mrs. Vosburg, of Hartsville, will have twenty-four pair knit.  We don't know how to send the wool to them.  We cannot be expected to carry it ourself. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, October 9, 1861, p. 1, c. 5
               
Substitute for Coffee.—Scrape clean three or four good parsnips, cut them into thin slices, bake till well brown, grind or crush, and use in the same manner as coffee, from which it is scarcely distinguishable.  This is not only a beverage equally as good as coffee, but it is likewise a cure for asthma. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, October l9, 1861, p. 4, c. 1
               
How to Wash Clothes.—Soak the clothes over night, or longer, in cold water, rubbing soap, with the hand, on the dirty spots; in the morning wring out, and put in a pounding barrel, the dirtiest at the bottom; on these pour plenty of boiling hot suds; pound them, taking off the top layers as fast as done, and you will find that but a few of the very dirtiest will need any rubbing whatever, and but little boiling.  In this way I usually get my washing all out of the way before breakfast Monday mornings, and though not exactly a pleasant recreation, yet the horrors of washing day are diminished fully one half.—Rural New Yorker. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, October 16, 1861, p. 1, c. 4
               
Yopon Tea.—In view of the probable scarcity of tea and coffee during the war, we see the papers are recommending the use of the leaves and twigs of the yopon, an evergreen which grows spontaneously on our coast.  The yopon is a common drink on the banks, and is highly esteemed by many.  We have heard it said that when it is well cured, it is greatly improved when the milk and molasses are boiled with it.  It is rather vulgar to use sugar for sweetening yopon.  Molasses is the thing.  A venerable lady, who lived to a considerable age on the banks, once speaking of the healthiness of yopon as a drink, said:  "Bless the Lord, yopon has kept me out of heaven these twenty years."—Raleigh Standard. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, October 16, 1861, p. 2, c. 2
               
We are requested by the young ladies and little girls of the Bellville Academy, to return their most cordial and heart-felt thanks to the Mrs. Glenns, Nichols, Johnson, Bell, Hutchens, Peters, Fabin, for having the wool spun for the knitting of socks for the Texas soldiers.  This is quite laudable in the young ladies of our little villa, in employing their idle "play-time," that might otherwise be unprofitable, in working for the comfort of those who are fighting the battles of the Southern Confederacy.—Are there not other schools in this county, and other young ladies that will do likewise?  So far the wants of the soldier have been promptly responded to by the ladies of the county, and they need no coo [sic] through the press to incite them to duty they owe to the soldier. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, October 16, 1861, p. 2, c. 7
               
The Matagorda Gazette, Indianola Courier, LaGrange Democrat, Bastrop Advertiser, Liberty Gazette, Lone Star, Brenham Enquirer, Richmond Reporter, Texas Baptist, Central Texan, have all been discontinued. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, October 23, 1861, p.  2, c. 7
               
The tools of Lincoln in Ohio are becoming almost as tyrannical toward unprotected females who are compelled to travel through that State, as are his "dodge" police in Baltimore toward little school girls, when they arrest and carry off to the station house, because, forsooth, their stockings or dress "bear the combination of prohibitory colors." 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, October 23, 1861, p. 2, c. 7
               
The Gulf Key says, a fine breech-loading cannon is now being manufactured at the foundry at Lavaca.  It will be 5 feet 9 inches in length, bore 2 inches in diameter.  The ball to be used will be conical shape, and will throw a ball 4 miles with accuracy.  It is intended to make three of this kind of cannon. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, October 30, 1861, p. 1
               
Nothing in the poetical line, is more beautiful and apropos to the times, than the following stanzas we see floating the rounds of our exchanges, "The Brave at Home."--Truly the author well defines the character of the maids and matrons of the South:

The Brave at Home.

The maid who binds her warrior's sash,
               
And smiling, all her pain dissembles,
And while beneath the drooping lash
               
One starry teardrop hangs and trembles—
Though Heaven alone records the tear,
               
And fame shall never know her story,
Her heart has shed a drop as dear
               
As ever dewed the field of glory. 

The wife who girds her husband's sword,
               
'Mid little ones who weep and wonder,
And bravely speaks the cheering word
               
What tho' her heart be rent asunder—
Doomed nightly in her dreams to hear
               
The [illegible] of war around him rattle,
Has shed as sacred blood as e'er
               
Was poured upon the plain of battle. 

The mother who conceals her grief,
               
While to her breast her son she presses,
Then breathes a few brave words, and brief,
               
Kissing the patriots brow she blesses,
With no one but her secret God
               
To know the pain that weighs upon her,
Sheds holy blood as e're the sod
               
Received from Freedom's field of honor! 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, November 13, 1861, p. 2, c. 3

Voice from the Bellville School

                The wool kindly provided by the worthy Editor of the Countryman, and spun by a few patriotic ladies of Bellville and vicinity; we, the pupils of the Bellville Academy, (some of us very little girls) have knit into socks for Texas soldiers.  We feel it a privilege thus to be allowed to contribute to the comfort of our brave soldiers, and to them we would say, that so long as is necessary, we pledge ourselves to keep our fingers busy in their behalf:
               
Names                                    No. of fleeces spun.
Mrs. L. A. Johnson......................................2
"    Sarah Glen..............................................1
"    Margaret Glenn......................................1
"    Amanda Hutchen....................................1
"    Sarah McPeters.......................................1
"    Margaret Fabin........................................1
"    Francis Nichols........................................1
"    Nancy Granville......................................1
"    Abby Bell.................................................1—10
No. Socks Knit by Young Ladies & Little Girls
               
Names                                    Pairs
Miss Jane Glenn..................................4
"     Cally Glenn...................................2
"     Sallie  Glenn..................................2
"    Virginia Minton..............................2
"     America L. Francis........................4
"     Madora Francis..............................2
"     Victoria C. Howard........................4
"     Laura V. Howard............................1
"     Mary L. Reed..................................4
"     Eliza A. Reed...................................1
"     Carry E. Reed...................................1
"     Mary Matthews................................3
"     Lizzie Matthews...............................1
"     Susan Bell........................................3
"     Angalina Bell...................................2
"     Clarinda Reams................................2
"     Eliza Reams.....................................1
"     Joanna Goode..................................1
"     Melissa Hutchens.............................1
"     Mary McPeters.................................1
"     Caroline Nichols...............................1
"     Ellen Nichols....................................1
"     Laura Railey......................................3
               
_________.................................1—48 

 BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, November 13, 1861, p. 2, c. 2
               
The Vicksburg Whig announces the arrival in that place of two Texas companies.  The "Freestone Freemen," W. L. Moody, from Freestone county, and the "Waco Rifles," G. B. Granberry, en route for Memphis. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, November 27, 1861, p. 2, c. 1
               
More Socks.—We have received ten pair of yarn socks from Mrs. W. J. M. Lyons, for the benefit of our soldiers at Galveston.  Also, two pair of cotton socks from Mrs. R. Moore, for the same purpose, and take this opportunity to state to those who are knitting for the soldier, that where yarn is not most convenient, cotton will answer the same purpose; as some even prefer the cotton to the yarn sock.  We never use the latter, and doubt not that there are those in the service equally as fastidious as ourself. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, November 27, 1861, p. 2, c. 3
               
The Bastrop Military Institute is again in full blast under the management of Mr. R. T. A. [sic] Allen.  May success attend it. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, November 27, 1861, p. 2, c. 3
               
In the Jefferson Herald and Gazette of Cass County, we find a communication from "Penelope" stating what the ladies of Rock Spring have done.  We think it best however to let "Penelope" tell her own story:
               
I will gladden your patriotic hearts, when I tell you that in the vicinity of Rock Spring, they have not only been busy day and night, sewing and knitting for our volunteers, but have gone and picked out the cotton crop of a young man, who, Putnam-like, dropped his farming implements to go and fight for the deliverance of his country from her insulting oppressors.
               
Now gentlemen, won't you have to make an unconditional surrender, and acknowledge "some one hurt on our side?"
               
What a contrast there is in the conduct of these noble ladies, and that of those young men who are now at home reposing in ease and supineness, while their brethren are far away, blending and dying to secure the liberty they now enjoy!  The memory of the latter we will cherish in our hearts; while that of the former will be execrated or perish in oblivion.                                                                         Penelope. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, December 4, 1861, p. 2, c. 3

Thanksgiving Ceremonies and the Concert.

                The ceremonies of Thanksgiving day in Bellville, we believe was generally observed by the citizens.  Parson Shaver, in compliance with previous notice held Episcopal service in the Church, which was well attended.  His sermon was in every way appropriate to the occasion; abounding in a chain of terse, pointed and sound theological facts, and delivered with that frankness and candor characteristic of the worthy divine.  His health has for some time past been feeble, and his sermon was, no doubt, delivered under difficulties.
               
The shades of evening having closed in, all was in busy bustle preparing for the Concert, which the ladies had determined to give for the benefit of the soldiers, only two days previous.  At the appointed hour, the beauty, chivalry, and—as a friend calls them—the Jeff. Davis seed—(little boys) were all snugly ensconced in the Academy, anxiously awaiting the promised feast of music.—Verily, we did not believe such a large crowd could have been gathered in so short a time; however, we charge it all to the ladies.  After a few moment's chit-chat, consequent upon such occasions, the soft notes of the Piano fell upon the ears of the anxious audience, who were edified for some length of time, with several selections of beautiful music.  Among the many pieces excellently performed, we will mention "Osaman Waltz," "Universal Medley," "When I was a Little Gal," and "Lincoln's Retreat from Manassas," composed by Miss C_____ of Austin county, and the audience gave evidence of their appreciation of the pieces, by the deafening reign of applause which each piece received.  All in all, the Concert met, if not exceeded the most sanguine expectations of all present.
               
As the audience had for a late hour feasted upon music, which served as food for the soul; the gnawings of the body began to demand refreshments, which we can assure our readers that the ladies were not unmindful of, for they had prepared a bounteous supper at the Court House which was partaken of with much avidity, but in due compliance with the rules of etiquette.  The table was supplied with some of the rarest luxuries of the season, and catered in the best style of the art.  We head several, who claimed to be connoisseurs say it was the best supper they have had the pleasure of eating in two years.
               
The receipts of the evening were small in comparison to the amount of trouble they were at in preparing the entertainment; though sufficient, we hope to encourage them to another effort during the holidays.  It is a very happy mode of indirect tax for the benefit of the soldier, and at the same time a source of enjoyment to those at home.  Let due notice be given and we venture the assertion that the receipts will not fall far short of $75.00.
               
A Calico Ball, would, we believe, be liberally patronized, and at the same time do much toward inaugurating a fashion of domestic economy.  But we shall not presume to dictate, and shall leave the best ways for passing the holidays, and contributing to the soldiers in the hands of the ladies. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, December 4, 1861, p. 4, c. 2
               
Snuff Dipping.—Miss Tennessee Gibson, a beautiful young lady, died from the effects of snuff dipping in Arkansas.  She fell asleep with the "mop" in her mouth, and was found a corpse some hours after.  A post mortem revealed the fact that she had swallowed the juice which was converted into vicotine [sic?] a deadly poison; her lips cheeks and breast were smeered [sic] with the foul snuff in her dying struggles, alone in her room.  Before she retired she felt a deadly sickness, having swallowed some of the juice, but she had used it so long, that nothing was thought of her complaint until it was too late. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, December 11, 1861, p. 1, c. 5
               
To Harden Tallow, Suet or Lard for Candles.—To half a lb. each of alum and saltpetre, pulverised [sic] coarsely, pour on it a quart of boiling water—take from 12 to 20 lbs. of tallow, according to its firmness, the former quantity for the oily tallow we get from a fat beef in summer, or for lard, and the latter for tallow that will stand in a cake; put it in an iron vessel near the fire, and when melted, stir in the dissolved alum and saltpetre and boil until the water is all expelled from the tallow.  Have the wicks smaller and of finer thread than is usual for home-made candles—dip them in a strong solution of saltpetre, and when perfectly dry mould the candle in the usual way.  If any one, after giving this receipt a trial, goes in darkness, it is because their deeds are evil. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, December 11, 1861, p. 2, c. 3
               
The Lagrange True Issue has suspended until after the blockade.  From its "Good-Bye" it appears that the patrons have not come to its aid in time of need. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, December 18, 1861, p. 1, c. 4

Letter from Galveston.

                                                                                                            Camp Kirby, Dickinson's Bayou,
                                                                                                               
Dec. 8th, 1861.
Editor Countryman:
. . . But I have not said all that I set out for.  Speaking of the pleasures of the camp leads me to say that we have more than an average share of vocal talent here, which being coupled with aa brass band instrument (the name of which I can neither spell nor remember) serve very much to while away the sometimes long and lonely hours from twilight until that period when

"Tired nature's sweet restorer, balmy sleep,"

takes us to its fond embrace and closes the avenues of the soul to external and surrounding objects.
               
Songs and ballads are of course the only pieces that the masses of a hardy soldiery can tolerate, and of these we have quite a variety, among the most popular of which are "Gentle Annie," "Dixie," with the words written by Albert Pike, "Troubadour," "The Child's Wish," &c., besides negro melodies in abundance.  Running races is also one of the many expedients which the soldier seeks when in pursuit of something new. . . .                                                                                                                Amicus. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, December 18, 1861, p. 2, c. 2
               
Salt works have been established and put in operation at five different points in Smith county, Texas, within the past month. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, January 8, 1862, p. 1, c. 1
               
We have to reduce our size and dispense with most of our advertisements in order to economise [sic] in paper, an article that is very scarce in the Southern Confederacy.  We do hope there will be no great objection to this course, as by discontinuing the advertisements, we can give nearly as much reading matter as formerly.  We intend to use smaller type after an issue or two.  Some will grumble anyhow, when the best is done and we can only ask the kind indulgence of those who duly appreciate the adversity of the times, until a more auspicious future dawns upon our land.  Getting more paper than we have on hand is out of the question, until the blockade is raised, and as we feel ambitious and wish to publish the Countryman as long as we see another paper published in the State, we have to come down to our present size.  How long we will have to visit you in this shape we cannot say but hope not a great while. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, February 1, 1862, p. 1, c. 1

Try It Ladies.

                Mr. Editor:--Dear Sir:  We have been out getting recruits, and find many young men that intend to join the army when the Yankees get into our country.  They have this excuse, that excuse, and the other excuse for their delinquency in not doing their duty; it is not one man's duty more than anothers to defend his country from the invader, and if all were to stay at home what would become of Texas?  The answer is visible.  Therefore, as we have heard of the young ladies forming themselves into committees and sending those young gentlemen a doll that could not join the army, but upon receiving said present enlisted forthwith, we hope the ladies will test the matter by making the young men of Forkston a like present.  Try its virtue, it mought bring them in to the army.  So mote it be.
                                                                                                                               
Recruiter. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, February 22, 1862, p. 1, c. 1
               
The Dallas Herald has subsided; out of paper.  We regret the demise of this excellent journal, and cannot see how the frontier people can do without it.  The editor is going to the war. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, February 22, 1862, p. 1, c. 5
               
The editor of the Pomeroy Telegraph has received a star taken from the apron of a "Secesh" lady, who had the boldness to cross the Ohio and flaunt it in the face of two or three Buckeye girls.  They determined to capture the rebel emblem, and did so, the pretty Secessionist assailing them with stones and hard words during the engagement.  No lives were lost.—[Cin. Commercial
               
So it seems that our girls like the boys, can only be conquered by superior numbers of the enemy. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, March 29, 1862, p. 1, c. 3

Soldier's Families

                Our citizens, in every county we hear from are nobly responding to the proclamation of the Governor.  To our ladies and all other citizens constrained to remain at home, we have an important word to say.  The raising of the new levies, amounting to fifteen thousand men, will cause many of our citizens in needy circumstances, whose families are dependent upon their individual exertions for support, to take the field.  Honor, patriotism, simple humanity render it the imperative duty of those remaining behind to make suitable provisions for the maintenance of the families of all such soldiers.  In order to accomplish this object, Associations will be absolutely necessary.  Nothing we know will be done unless the ladies take the initiative.  Our first volunteers were almost all entirely made up of single men, and married were in easy circumstances.  They have been furnished large amounts of clothing, and thus enabled to draw their commutation of clothing from the Government in money.  The time will shortly come when, in order to carry out the still more sacred and imperative duty of feeding and clothing the families of our indigent soldiers, these contributions of clothing must cease.  The winter months are now over, and the pay of the private, and the amount allowed by the Government for clothing will be amply sufficient to supply all his wants.
               
We must now look out for the hungry and half clad little ones, whose fathers, in order to fight for the hearthstones of the South have, or will leave, a sacred charge upon our hands.  There are many gallant spirits in our midst who would in a moment rush with their arms to the standard of the country, if they but knew those dependent upon them for sustenance would be provided for in their absence.  Let us fellow citizens give them this assurance—the casting this heavy millstones from their necks will gladden the hearts of many men who are now downcast with sorrow, cursing with bitterness that poverty which dooms them to remain at home in this the darkest hour of their country's peril.—State Gazette.
               
We heartily endorse these sentiments of the Gazette and hope that our county will not be behind others in so praiseworthy an object, many of our citizens who have responded so nobly to the call of their country have left helpless and dependent families at home, many more would go, are anxious to go, if they could have an assurance that their families would be cared for during their absence; many of our citizens are poor men and dependent upon their yearly crops for the support of themselves and families; aside from which they have not the means of support, and they do not see how their families are to live if they leave their fields uncultivated.  Cannot some plan be adopted for their relief, heretofore the matter has been left to the executive committee and one or two subcommittees, but the great number that will now be left requires a more efficient means.  We would suggest that an association be formed in every Beat in the county, with a commissory [sic] department, or depository, and that every one who stays at home be requested to contribute something in the way of provisions, clothing, money, or any thing else, that can be made available.  Let not those who stay at home conclude that they have nothing to do but loiter about and complain of dull times, or sordedly [sic] seek their own gain, but let them be diligently engaged in doing something for their country as well as those who go to war, this is no time for any to be idle.  If you cannot serve your country in one way, serve it in another, every one cannot go to the battle field, it is not expected or desired that every one should go, and while every mail is bringing glorious news of victory won by those who have gone let those at home assure them that their little ones at home are not crying for bread. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, May 10, 1862, p. 1, c. 1
               
Our ladies have been busy at the Court House, all the week making tents for one of the companies of Flournoy's regiment (Hunt's).  The regiment will march sometime in the course of five or six days. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, May 17, 1862, p. 1, c. 1
               
Our Town is exceedingly dull these times.  Our stores and shops are closed more than half the time.  We can not hope for more lively times till the war is over.  

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, May 17, 1862, p. 1, c. 5
               
S. M. Warner, who was taken to Chicago as one of the Fort Donelson prisoners, escaped not long since "one very dark, tempestuous night, after fooling the guard and scaling the walls," and arrived safe home at Tyler.  He was formerly editor of the Tyler Reporter and at the time of his capture, orderly Sergeant of a company in Gregg's regiment. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, May 24, 1862, p. 1, c. 6
               
The Ladies of Mission Valley, Victoria County, to the Ladies of Texas—
               
To our sisters throughout the State of Texas, we send this greeting—
               
The dark hour in our country's history is approaching; her peril is great.  Our young men have gone forth to offer their lives in defense of our homes and our altars.  We feel that the time has come for us to act our part, and if we can meet with hearty co operation, which we feel assured you will give, we will be able to do much to perpetuate human liberty.  Money is one of the sinews of war.  One million of the precious metals, at least, is now lying in our caskets; let us lay them upon the altar of our country.  We propose that each county organize a society, and immediately collect the treasure now lying useless, and forward it to our patriotic Governor, to be by him disposed of, and the proceeds given to the Treasurer of our country.  Let each county as soon as organized report to the Herald.
               
Bessie Throop,                                     Fannie Scott,
               
Sue Cole,                                               Sallie Swan,
               
Jennie Throop,                                     Henrietta Scott,
               
and others.
               
Papers throughout the State will please copy. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, May 31, 1862, p.  1, c. 3
                                                                                               
Bellville, May 27th, 1862.     
             . . A few days since I called in to see my old friend Dr. Reams.  The Doctor's health is not very good now a days, still he is going about trying to do good.  His family are all hard at work, some knitting, some spinning and some weaving, carding, etc.  Mrs. Reams is making some very good cloth.  The cloth sells well and I have no doubt will wear well.  It is dyed a sort of brown color, whether they color the cotton first before spinning or color the cloth I was not informed.  This cloth seems to be a good deal in demand about here and I am told there are a good many families about here making similar cloth.
               
There are a good many families making cloth of cotton and wool.  This you know is called linsey woolsy.  They dye the wool before it is carded or spun.  The old lady where I board colored some the other day.  She told me she wanted a cotton basketful of little green moss.  I wondered what she could want that stuff for.  I never heard that it was good for anything before.  True, in North Carolina, we used to cut down trees in the winter when the snow was upon the ground, and fodder and hay were scarce as they generally were there, and let the sheep eat this green moss to keep them alive, and by this means we were saved the trouble of pulling the wool from the dead sheep.  However, I said nothing to the old lady, and after dinner I took the cotton basket and a couple of the boys and went to the timber.  We found a plenty of moss.  The boys climbed the trees and pulled it off while I picked it up and put it in the basket.  In about three hours, we had got the basket full, when we started home.  I carried the basket while the boys walked along, one on either side, chatting and talking a good deal.  These are good boys, tho I think Isaac is rather a better boy than William, tho' William is the eldest.  They try to help their mother all they can while their father and eldest brother, George, are absent in the war.  When Isaac and William get up in the morning they do not sit about the house, waiting to be told what to do, but they immediately go about doing up the morning's work.  They chop the fire wood, grease the wagon, rope the calves for their sister Mary, drive up the steers and yoke them, and so get everything ready to go immediately to work after breakfast.  They have been plowing the corn the past week, and are now preparing the potato ground.  And when the boys go to work one hour and then sit down on a log and rest two hours, and then go to the house for a lunch and a drink of water, but having made all their preparations in the morning, when they get to the field they continue to work steadily until Mary blows the horn for dinner.  They do not work upon the jump all the time, but work steady and keep steady at it.  Boys who work so are bound to become thriving and industrious men and to be an ornament to society, when they are grown.  I attribute a good deal of their steady habits to their mother, who hardly ever scolds or frets or storms about, but does about three times as much work as one of your scolding, fretting, storming, always kicking up a fuss sort of women.  I also do all I can to encourage the boys to go on with their work.
               
You have known some very clever old women no doubt, who would sometimes commence to tell a story, and after commencing it tell five or six other stories before finishing the one they started to tell or perhaps forget all about it and not finish it at all.  You probably begin to think it is going to be about so with my moss, but I have been all the time thinking about that moss and will try and get to it now.
               
After we got home, the old lady took the moss and picked it all over, picking out all the sticks and pieces of bark and dead moss, she then took the large kettle and spread a layer of moss all over the bottom of it and then a layer of wool and then a layer of moss, and so moss and wool alternately until the kettle was full.  She then laid some boards across the top and put a rock on the top to hold it down and then filled the kettle with water and boiled it.  It made the most beautiful brown color I ever saw.  They used to call it a dark snuff color in North Carolina.  This is called "dyeing in the wool," and will not wash out nor fade.  The old lady has a piece of about thirty yards in the loom now.  You shall have a "Sunday go to meeting" suit off of it, if you get home pretty soon.  You would look better in a suit of it than if dressed up in Yankee "store clothes." . . .                                                                                                                             G. W. Jefferson Smith. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, May 31, 1862, p. 1, c. 5
               
We are informed that there are now 209 convicts in the State Penitentiary, which is now turning out near 6000 yards of Osnaburgs daily. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, July 26, 1862, p. 2, c. 1

County Currency.

                The Tyler Reporter says the county court of that county has adopted the following judicious and sound basis for the issue of a currency:
               
"A large amount of bills, ranging from 25 cents to five dollars, has been issued by the Court.  These bills are based on Confederate Notes, and are just as good.  They are only given out in change for Confederate money or its equivalent, and consequently the Confederate money is always on hand for their redemption.  They will pay the war tax as well as the Confederate money, and serve in all business transactions as Confederate money.  The people of adjoining counties need not hesitate to receive and use these bills, because they are not only backed by the integrity of the county but dollar for dollar by Confederate Notes in the treasury of our county."
               
This mode of making small change, by the County Court of Smith county is the best we have heard of, and should be adopted by the county courts generally.  The great inconvenience the people have been placed at, for the want of small change, has caused the issuance of many worthless shinplasters, and if the counties generally, would pursue the same plan as adopted by Smith county, we could do away with individual shinplasters.  A contemporary suggests, that in order to render this scheme perfect, and to guard the public against loss, there ought to be a safe depository established, and the parties handling the money should be placed under heavy bond.
               
It would certainly be to the interest of Washington county, it is commissioners would authorise the issuance of county script, as low as 10 cents and have it printed on better and more durable paper than the warrants now issued.—Ranger

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, August 9, 1862, p. 1, c. 2
                                                                                               
Houston, July 28, 1862.
Editor Countryman:
               
. . . Houston, although the great military depot of the State, is by no means a lively place.  But little business, other than that of a military character, is being transacted, and everything and everybody presents a dull, monotonous appearance.  Dry goods, groceries—in fact all the necessaries and comforts of man are very scarce and command most fabulous prices.  For instance, boots are worth $25 per pair, shoes from $12 to $15, and other necessary articles of apparel in proportion.  Flour, the best quality, sell at $12 per 100 lbs., bacon 25 cts. per lb., potatoes $4 per bushel, eggs 50 cts. per dozen, etc., etc. . 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, August 9, 1862, p. 2, c. 5
                                                                                                               
Richmond, June 11, '62
. . . But the most harrowing and heart-rending sight witnessed on that day, occurred towards evening, on the railroad, and near town.  Quite a youth, a soldier, being wounded early in the action, had manfully undertaken to walk to town; but the loss of blood, and fatigue, was too much for him, and he had fainted on the way.  A good lady, (whose son, perhaps, was in the fight,) all anxiety to learn the news, had walked some distance upon the track, and discovering the fainting youth, sat by the roadside and bathed the temples of the Carolinian boy, weeping as she did so, and unconsciously speaking of her hopes and fears.  The wounded youth was for some time utterly unconscious of these kind attentions, but when his arm had been bound up, and temples bathed, and his eyes opened, he looked into the face of the good lady with mute yet eloquent meaning; his lips moved, but that was all—he wept, and so did his nurse.  Strangers to each other—yet mother and son they truly were—both in instinct and every feeling.
                                                                                                               
T. E. C. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, August 16, 1862, p. 1, c. 1
               
The Ranger, not being disposed to remain longer out of fashion, has come down to a half-sheet.  A full sheet newspaper has been out of fashion for a long time. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, August 23, 1862, p. 1, c. 4
               
Substitute for Soda.—A lady of Fluvanna county sends us the following, which we publish for the information of housekeepers:--Ex. 
               
To the ashes of corn cobs add a little boiling water.  After allowing it to stand for a few minutes, pour off the lye, which can be used at once with an acid (sour milk or vinegar).  It makes the bread as slight as soda.
               
Our lady readers in the country should cut this out and remember it.  They can avail themselves of corn cobs it will be perceived any moment and with scarcely any trouble at all. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, August 30, 1862, p. 1, c. 1
               
There is a good deal of inquiry for looms and spinning wheels.  We have a small manufactory near this place but not enough to supply the demand. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, September 6, 1862, p. 1, c. 1
               
We call attention to the letter of Gov. Lubbock relative to the manufacture of cloth at Huntsville, and its distribution.  To get cloth at Huntsville seems to be hopeless.  We advise everybody to go to making it. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, September 6, 1862, p. 1, c. 1
               
Bartlett's mills in the town of Chatfield, Navarro county, were destroyed by fire on the 16th ultimo.—Two carding machines were burnt up which had just arrived and been put away in the carding room.  The loss is estimated at $20,000.  It is supposed to have been the work of an incendiary. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, September 20, 1862, p. 1, c. 5
               
Almost every family in this county seems to be actively engaged in the manufacture of cloth.  Some have not yet got their looms, and some are still in want of spinning wheels; but all seem to be making preparations in some way to manufacture enough for home consumption. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, October 11, 1862, p. 2, c. 3
               
Recipe for Dying Slate Color.—Equal portions of the inside bark of sassafras and willow, boiled in a brass kettle; strain the decoction from the bark, and add to two gallons of the fluid a small table spoonful of copperas, the same of alum, or a small table spoonful of copperas, the same of alum, or a small portion of the latter. [sic?]  Have the wool well scoured, and taken out of a clean soapsuds; wring it dry and put it into the dye, let it boil a short time, raising it out to get air frequently; dry it and then wash it in suds until quite cleansed from the smell of dye.  It is a permanent color, and does not take a great quantity of the bark above names; it is richer than almost any other bark I have ever used.
               
The black jack will dye a good slate color, prepared in the same way, but not so permanent a color as the other.   

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, October 11, 1862, p. 2, c. 4
               
Useful to House Keepers.—Recent experiments in more than one family in this city, have established the fact that the plant commonly known as "water pepper" or "smart weed," which may now be found in abundance along our ditches, and roads, lanes and barn yards is an effectual and certain destroyer of the bed bug.  A strong decoction is made of the herb, and the places infested with the insects washed thoroughly with it.  The plant may also with much advantage be stuffed in the cracks and corners of the room.  Elderberry leaves laid upon the shelves of a safe or cupboard will also drive away roaches and ants, while the common house fly will not venture in smelling distance of them.  These simple remedies should be extensively used.—Exchange. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, November 8, 1862, p. 1, c. 1
               
There is great cry made all the time for clothing for the soldiers.  Why don't those in authority take some measures to provide cards for the people, and then it will not be difficult to manufacture the clothing.  If our county court would take some action to procure cards for the county, they would enable many a family to provide for its own support.  Cards are what are wanted.  A wagon load bro't from Matamoras would well supply the county. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, November 15, 1862, p. 2, c. 3
               
We are glad to see that the young ladies of our neighborhood have inaugurated a fashion of their own, in lieu of the outrageous "sky-scrapers" imported from Houston.  The new headcover is in the shape like a turban, neatly variegated in color, and set off with a few artificials.  The belles look prettier in this new headdress, than we ever saw them.  Humph!  won't there be some crazy soldiers when the war is over!                                                                                                                                             [Item. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, November 22, 1862, p. 1, c. 4
               
The following is well known in your city, but may be new to you country readers; I knew it is to a good many in this section:
               
To make Coffee:--Take a teacupful of green coffee; parch and grind in the usual way; take a quart of molasses and burn it (or candy it) till every particle of molasses taste is burnt out of it; then set it off the fire and let it cool a few seconds until the fiery heat is gone; then stir your ground coffee into it well, and pour out into greased plates to cool.  To make coffee, a piece of this substance about the size of a thimble will make a strong cup of good coffee by pouring hot water on it and letting it stand a few minutes; or take a piece of it about the size of your thumb and make in the usual way and it will do a small family one time.—Telegraph. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, November 22, 1862, p. 2, c. 2
               
Within the last two weeks we have had several calls for leather, cheap leather, but unfortunately we were not able to furnish it ourself, or recommend any place hereabouts, where it could be had at living prices to the purchaser.  We have been recently informed, however, that a tanner near Rutersville, is now, and has been all the while selling sole leather at 50 cents per lb, and upper at similar rates.  There may be other tanners in the county who sell at such living prices, but we do not know who they are.  If we were disposed we could tell where colored raw hide might be bought at $1.50 per lb., but we are unwilling to advertise gratuitously.
               
We learn through our exchanges, that leather is selling cheap in some of our sister counties, and for the benefit of all who may wish to know, we re-publish the following:
               
TRUE PATRIOTISM.—In response to our call, for reports from the tanners of our county, wee have received the following letter from Judge Smith which evinces a good degree of patriotism that is truly refreshing, in these days of speculation.
                                                                                               
Rusk County, Oct. 5th '62.
               
Editor of the Times.—I will give you the prices of my leather, viz:--Sole 37½ per pound; Harness, 50 cts., and Upper, at similar rates.
               
These prices pay a fair profit, according to the prices that are paid for hides.  I am giving 12½ cts per pound for dry, and 6 cts., for green hides.  I look upon all tanners who charge much higher than these rates as extortioners, and I look upon extortioners in these "war times: as but little better than the Feds who would rob us.  While our sons, brothers and friends are in the army fighting and suffering, the tanner who is exempted, for the very purpose of making leather to shoe the soldier, his wife and children, has in many instances turned speculator and extortioner.  I cannot look upon one who acts thus, as a friend to his country.
                                                                                               
Yours, &c.,
                                                                                                               
Bennett Smith.
               
The above was taken from the East Texas Times, published at Henderson, Rusk county, Texas, and shows a great disparity between the prices of leather in that section, and the prices here.  Will the tanners of Fayette explain why they cannot afford to sell leather as cheap as those of Rusk?  Just think of it.  Sole leather there 37½ cts. per lb; here $1.50.—True Issue. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, December 6, 1862, p. 1, c. 2
               
The Almanac Extra says that cotton cards are being manufactured in Williamson county, samples of which are pronounced by good judges to be O. K. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, December 6, 1862, p. 1, c. 5
               
Tallow Candles Equal to Star.—Messrs. Editors:  It may be of some interest to your numerous readers to know that with not a cent of additional expense, tallow candles can be made fully equal in point of merit to the common star candle.
               
To two pounds of tallow add one teacupful of good strong ley [lye], from wood ashes, and simmer over a slow fire, when a greasy scum will float on top; skim this off for making soap, (it is very near soap already,) as long as it continues to rise.  Then mould your candles as usual, making the wicks a little smaller, and you have a pure, hard tallow candle, worth knowing how to make, and one that burns as long and gives a light equal to sperm.  The chemistry demonstrates itself.  An ounce or two of beeswax will make the candle some harder, and steeping the wicks in spirits turpentine will make it burn some brighter.  I write with one before me.—Mobile News. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, December 6, 1862, p. 1, c. 4
               
Fighting for the Fat Gourd.—The true object for which the Lincoln Government is prosecuting the war is well illustrated in an incident which occurred during the Federal occupation of the gallant county of Jackson, Alabama.
               
"A patriotic matron annoyed, but not intimidated, by the uninvited visit of a Federal soldier, asked him:  "What are you Yankees fighting for any how?"  He returned for answer the stereotyped lie—"Why, for the Union and the Constitution."—"Well" said the matron, "I suppose you found the Union and the Constitution when you stole Mrs. Simmons' fat gourd t'other day." 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, December 6, 1862, p. 2, c. 1
               
Cheap, but Good.—A friend has suggested to us a recipe for making blacking, which he says can be recommended both for its cheapness and quality:  To a tea-cup of molasses stir in lamp-black till it is thick.  Then add the whites of two eggs, well beaten, and to this add a pint of vinegar or whiskey, (rather scarce), and put in a bottle for use.  Shake it before using.  The experiment is at least worthy of a trial, as ordinary blacking has so rapidly advanced since the blockade.  A neatly polished boot is an ornament to the person of any man or woman, as much so, indeed as a clean shirt bosom or collar. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, December 6, 1862, p. 2, c. 3.  [Summary:  words to "Bonnie Blue Flag"] 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, December 13, 1862, p. 2, c. 2
                                                                                               
Anderson, Grimes Co., Nov. 8 '62.
E. H. Cushing:--I send you the following:
               
Certain Cure for Putrid Sore Throat.—Make a strong solution of common salt and water; heat it, and apply it to the throat as hot as can be borne; for this purpose dip a flannel bandage in the solution and wrap it round the neck, sprinkling a little salt on the bandage next to the throat, and then outside of this wrap a dry towel to prevent evaporation; renew this hot application every half hour, and use a gargle of the same solution every three hours.
               
The above was recommended to me by a lady of your city, and it cured my wife after the white putrid matter or "false membrane" had formed, almost entirely filling up the throat.  It also cured another case in my family.  You need have no doubt of its efficacy.  A lady friend also informed me that our soldiers going to Virginia by the Calcasieu used it successfully.  In no case did it fail.
 
                                                                                               Yours, &c.,
                                                                                                               
J. H. W.
               
I take the following from the Louisiana Democrat:
               
To save port:--To five gallons of water add seven lbs. of salt, one pint of syrup, one teaspoonful of pulverized saltpetre.  After the pork is cut up, spread out and cooled in the usual manner, pack in good tight barrels and cover with the above liquid mixture.  Let it stand four or five weeks, well weighted down; then draw, hang and smoke in the usual way.  Thus 20 lbs of salt are made to save 1000 lbs. pork.
               
John H. Taylor of Georgia gives the above recipe, and says, many have tried it with complete success last season.
               
To dye cotton or wool brown.—A lady friend sends the following receipt for dying cotton or wool brown:
               
Take the bark of the root of a common wild plum—boil in iron or brass, as most convenient until the dye looks almost black.  Strain, and add a small quantity of copperas dissolved in a small quantity of the dye.  Add the article to be dyed.  Boil an hour or so.  Wring out and dip in strong cold ley [lye].  When dry, rinse in cold water.  This gives a genuine, bright brown, which is the prettiest contrast for blue; and when checked in together makes a dress becoming enough for the proudest Southern dame or belle.  Ladies, try it. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, December 27, 1862, p. 1, c. 1
               
Cotton cards were selling at $25.00 per pair, at Star Hill last week, and other things in proportion.  There were about fifty pairs left. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, December 27, 1862, p. 1, c. 3
               
A Substitute for Shoes.—An experienced citizen has called our attention to the subject of the use of cowhide moccasins as a substitute for shoes.  He states, that when he moved to the Mississippi fifty years ago, no shoes were to be had for the negroes, and they made their own out of this material, which answered the purpose as well as the more elaborately made article, and in some respects better.  The process is simple:  Take a green cowhide—or one well soaked—with the hair on, (which is to go next to the foot,) "put the foot down firmly" upon it, and cut out the pattern desired; make the necessary holes along the edges, and lace it with a thong of the same material at the heel and up the instep.
               
Let it dry upon the foot, and it accommodates itself perfectly to the shape of the latter, while it is sufficiently substantial for all kinds of traveling, and its elasticity is preserved by use.  Socks should be put on when it is made, though it can be worn without, and such allowance be made for shrinking so as to avoid too tight a fit.  The moccasin, it is unnecessary to observe, adapts itself to the shape of the foot, and the fit is perfect.  It outwears leather, and is not hard, as some might suppose, but quite the reverse.  If desired, it can be half soled with the same material.
               
The hair lining gives the advantage of warmth, so that socks (when not to be had) can be better dispensed with when moccasins are used than if shoes were worn.
               
The gentleman to whom we are indebted for the suggestion says, that he has mentioned the subject to soldiers, who are very much pleased with it, and say there is no reason why soldiers should go barefoot while so many hides are thrown away in the camps.—Mobile Register. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, January 3, 1863, p. 1, c. 2
               
Anecdote:--It is known probably, that the Texas soldiers generally, express themselves as having great contempt for Arkansas and her people.  Some time since two soldiers belonging to a Texas regiment in that State, were discussing the probabilities of a much longer continuance of the war, one of them remarked that he knew the reason the war did not end.  "Well," said the other, "let's hear it."  "Why," said he, "Jeff Davis wants Lincoln to take Arkansas, and Lincoln isn't willing to take the State as a gift, he'd rather fight about it first." 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, January 10, 1863, p. 1, c. 1
               
The True Issue says that Fayette county has received from the State Penitentiary, 86 bolts of Lowels for the destitute families of soldiers.
               
The True Issue learns from Mr. M. F. Rodgers, of Georgetown, that he has contracted with the Military Board to furnish them 90,000 pair of Cards, 10,000 of them to be wool cards, to be delivered within six months, and distributed among the several counties in the State.  We are glad to hear of this, and think this number properly distributed over the State, will enable every family to get a pair.  

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, January 17, 1863, p. 2, c. 2
               
The following is a recipe which answers every purpose in dyeing copperas color:  Half pint vinegar half pint syrup or molasses, three gallons of water.  Put the above into an iron pot with nails or other rusty iron, and let it stand twenty days.  It is of no use to buy copperas for dyeing at one dollar per pound, while this will answer every purpose. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, January 17, 1863, p. 2, c. 2
               
The officers of the 42d Mass. regiment, who came up as prisoners, in charge of Gen. M. B. Howard, informed him that the balance of the regiment left New York at the same time with themselves, under Colonel Burrell, and that the whole regiment consisted of 982 men as shown by their muster rolls.  Only three companies came on the transport with the Colonel, the balance of the regiment being on other transports.  Col. Burrell landed at Key West, then Ship Island, then Carrolton, where he stayed several days, and thence on to Galveston.  The balance of the regiment have not yet been heard from, and it is the impression of the officers that they foundered at sea.                                                                  [News. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, February 28, 1863, p. 1, c. 4
               
Washing Clothes.—It is said that in washing clothes, the addition of three quarters of an ounce of borax to a pound of soap, melted in without boiling makes a saving of one half cost of soap, and three-fourths the labor of washing, besides the usual caustic effect is removed, and the hands are left with a peculiar soft and silky feeling, leaving nothing more to be desired by the ambitious washerwoman. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, March 7, 1863, p. 1, c. 3
               
Cotton cards are manufactured in Milledgeville, Ga., and sold to soldiers wives for $6 per pair.  They are now selling here for about $30. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, March 11, 1863, p. 1, c. 1
               
There is a chance here now for some person to establish a store.  There is none in the place, and goods are in great demand. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, March 21, 1863, p. 1, c. 1
               
The price of Corn meal at San Antonio is $7 per bushel.
               
The editor of the Huntsville Item has received a lot of white printing paper, and is ready to receive the names of new subscribers.
               
"Flake's Weekly Bulletin" has made its appearance.  It is a paper published in Galveston at $2.50 for three months. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, March 21, 1863, p. 2, c. 1
               
We learn that a few days since some women in the suburbs of Greenville, Butler county, Ala., numbering some twenty or more, made a descent on the railroad agent at that point, and demanded "Salt or Blood."  The agent was taken completely by surprise, and at first refused to comply with their demands.  The agent, however, after being collared and "forced to the wall," made a virtue of necessity and compromised by dividing a large sack of salt with the fair demanders of "salt or blood."  This is certainly the most remarkable case of the preservation of human life by salt now on record. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, April 18, 1863, p. 1, c. 5

The Diana
Captured by Waller's Battalion and the Val Verde Battery.

                Last Thursday the Yankee gunboat Diana came up to Mrs. Cochrane's plantation, just below Pattersonville, for the purpose of seizing sugar, but by the energy and resolute protestations of Mrs. C. they desisted only robbing the lady of a few barrels for the use of the boat.  They threw out a landforce to protect them in their pilfering.  Col. Gray, whose headquarters are on the Teche, five or six miles from its mouth, being unable to send forces in season to catch these land and river pirates when they made their sudden dashes upon the plantations of the Atchafalaya and Black in consultation with Sibley to set a trap for them.  He accordingly selected his men for the work and ordered them to remain on the river with their batteries masked and watch for the enemy until he should order them to return.
               
They first took a position several miles below Pattersonville, but learning that the Diana was on her way down the lake, they moved up to Skeegs sugar house just below Pattersonville.  The force consisted of Waller's battalion under command of Major Boone, in the early part of the engagement and of Col. Waller in the latter part, the Valverde Battery, four field pieces in command of Lieut. Hume, and the other in command of Lieuts. Smith, Welch and Porter and 128 men of the 28th Regiment, commanded by Captain Abney.
               
About 2 P.M. last Saturday the 28th, the Diana came within about fifty yards of our batteries, which was waiting and ready for them.  The Diana suddenly discovered our forces, opened fire on them, killing nine cavalry horses, but doing no other damage.
               
Then commenced a scene on the Yankee gunboat which beggars description.  Our sharp shooters and the Valverde battery opened a fire a hundred times more terrific and fatal than anything this fated gunboat had ever witnessed before.  The gunners on the boat were swept away as if they had all been struck by lightning.  Those who were not slain or crippled on the spot fled terror stricken behind the casemating that protects the engines and great numbers jumped into the hold of the boat; the officers attempted to rally them, and all but one were swept away by the death dealing guns of an impetuous and terrible foe.  The gunners, pilots and officers were silenced at a dash; dismay and confusion reigned among those secreted behind the casemating and beneath the lower deck.
               
But the worst is yet to be said.  Amidst all this wreck and ruin, the dead and the dying lay in their gore shot to pieces, and their bodies terribly lacerated and torn by cannon balls and smaller shot.  Pillow cases were seized and sheets torn in the agony of the moment and used to staunch the wounds which  had not resulted in death; and there the next day, with floors besmeared with blood, added to the horrors of the scene.  Some of the balls of the Valverde battery went entirely through the casemating, which consisted of [p.2, c. 1] slabs of iron 1 ¼ inches thick and seven inches in width.  One cannon ball passed through the boat just in rear of the engine, and another splintered the timber near the starboard bearing of the main shaft.  As the boat floated down the stream, one section of the Valverde battery was alternately pouring its shots into the crippled gunboat, while the other sections took position below and waited for their prey to drift within range of their guns.
               
The steamer drifted down the stream with the rudder disabled, and only managed by half distracted engineers.  But while this was the state of things below, who can describe the terror that reigned in the cabin?
               
The Valverde battery and the sharpshooters threw a storm of iron and leaden hail that was terrific beyond description.  Doors, windows, and looking-glasses, tables, chairs, sofas, trunks, crockery-ware, the contents of feather-beds, the pantry store-rooms, and the surgeon's shelves looked as though they had been struck by lightning and then given up to the tender mercies of a hurricane.  The floor may almost be said to have been knee deep in the wreck of matter which but a few moments before was arranged in perfect order.
               
Thus she drifted for about two miles, shot at and struck from almost every imaginable point on this side of the river from Skeegs to Roussels.  Those who still controlled the boat, doubtless hoped she would float down far enough to be relieved by Yankee gunboats from Berwick's Bay, but at length they despaired of relief, a white flag was hung out and the boat surrendered.
               
The Diana had 122 men on board when she was attacked; 60 of these were infantry from the 160th New York and 12th Connecticut regiments.  Of this number, 10 were killed, 16 wounded, 95 taken prisoners and 5 missing.  These last jumped overboard and were perhaps drowned.
               
The armament of the Diana consisted of five guns, one Parrot 30 pound rifle gun, ten and a half feet, two Dahlgreen 32 pounder smooth bore and one brass 12 pound rifle Howitzer, one brass 12 pound Howitzer smooth bore and 140 stand of small arms for sharpshooters.  She is the best gunboat the Yankees had in Berwick's Bay, she contained an unusual among of splendid ammunition and other valuable stores, though her cabin was badly riddled her engine and her machinery, her guns and her hull are in excellent order.
               
In a few days she will be in a good condition for a fight.  She is now on this side of the wreck of the ill-fated Cotton, the poor monument to the memory of Gen. Mouton.  The first honorable monument to the memory of Gen. Sibley, we have added a splendid gunboat and a large amount of military stores to our navy without losing a single man.
               
Well done Gen. Sibley, Col. Gray, Col. Waller, Maj. Boone and the gallant Texans.—Planters Banner. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, May 9, 1863, p. 1, c. 4
               
Candles.—Eight pounds of lard one ounce of nitric acid; melt the lard and let it cool down so as to be merely in a liquid state, then add the acid, and mould the same as tallow, and you have a beautiful clear candle.  Add a small portion of white beeswax and they will resemble sperm. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, May 9, 1963, p. 1, c. 5
               
How to make good soap.—Take good strong ley [lye]from oak ashes and chop fine a good parcel of cornshucks put them in ley, boil until the ley eats up the shucks, add more shucks, taking the strings out they you will have good soap.                                          G.
               
[A sample can bee seen at the Courier office.—Charleston  Courier] 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, May 9, 1863, p. 1, c. 5
               
Blackberry wine.—The following is said to be an excellent receipt for the manufacture of superior wine from blackberries:
               
Measure your berries and bruise them, to every gallon adding one quart of boiling water; let the mixture stand twenty-four hours, stirring occasionally; then strain off the liquor into a cask, to every gallon adding two pounds of sugar; cork tight, and let it stand till the following October, and you will have wine ready for use, without any further straining or boiling, that will make lips smack as they never smacked under similar influence before. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, May 2, 1863, p. 1, c. 2

The Fair.

                We went, we saw, and—came away flat broke—who ever went to a fair and didn't?  a great many persons attended and we learn that the proceeds amounted to $10,000.  This is truly a nice and substantial compliment to the brave boys in Waller's Battalion, but would not that money be used to a better purpose—aye, and would not the recipients themselves be better pleased had that sum been divided among their families at home.  The sick soldiers do not need money, half so much as they need the knowledge that their wives and children are not suffering and in want.  The commutation of a soldier when sick is $1.00 a day.  Now, this is more than is necessary as an average to furnish all the comforts that can be obtained for the sick.  There are hundreds of families who, unable to work, and having no means of support, would and could be made comparatively comfortable by a portion of the proceeds of these fairs.  We cannot give too much credit to the ladies of Austin county who were instrumental in getting up the Fair at Hempstead, and many a heart felt "God bless you" will each receive from the thankful recipients of their good will—not so much for the pecuniary aid as for the soul cheering knowledge that they are not forgotten at home. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, May 16, 1863, p. 1, c. 1
               
The young ladies of Halsey Academy propose to give a dinner and tableau, on the evening of the 22d May, in aid of the General Hospital at Galveston.  Ample accommodations in the neighborhood for all who attend from a distance. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, May 16, 1863, p. 1, c. 1
               
Cloth.—Judge Catlin, who has just returned from Huntsville, informs us that no cloth will be furnished to soldiers' families in Austin county, till the 1st of July or after; and none will be granted on second applications until all first applications have received their share; and further, that none but soldiers' families can get cloth at all, these soldiers must be in the army, and not teamsters, &c. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, May 16, 1863, p. 1, c. 3
               
A Word.—There are some youngsters in this place, too young for Conscripts and too old as appears, to be governed by their parents or others, who amuse themselves by throwing rocks and sticks at the windows about town.  The glass in the schoolhouse windows have nearly all been broken and the sash much injured by these striplings.  These boys are known, and if their parents do not teach them better and make them obey, it may become the duty of the public to take them in hand.  Such mischievousness must be stopped. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, May 16, 1863, p. 1, c. 5
               
The Military Board of Texas has issued the following Circular to the several counties of the State:
                                                                                               
Office of the Military Board,
                                                                                                               
Austin, April 28, 1863.
To the Chief Justice of _____ County:
               
The undersigned, constituting the State Military Board, beg leave to inform you that they have succeeded in procuring several thousand pairs of Cotton Cards, of the very best manufacture, and that they have apportioned them to the Counties on the basis of the Scholastic census.
               
Your County will receive by sending for them _____ pairs.
               
The price is $10 per pair, in currency, payable at Austin on delivery.  We advise that several Counties sho'd combine in sending for their Cards, thereby saving much expenses.
               
The Board requests that these Cards be distributed in such way as the County Courts may deem best for the public good; respectfully enjoining that the needy families of those in the army shall, in all cases, be first supplied, and in no case shall the Cards be sold for a greater price than the cost to the County Courts, including transportation.
               
Should your County decline the offer, please notify us at once.
                                                                                               
Very Respectfully,
                                                                                               
F. R. Lubbock, Gov'nor,
                                                                                               
C. R. Johns, Comptroller
                                                                                               
C. H. Randolph, Treas'r.
               
Each County has been notified of its pro rata.  In distributing this lot of cards, the people will be saved over $200,000, independent of the effect it will have in putting down the price of them in the hands of speculators. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, May 16, 1863, 2, c. 2
               
The Atlanta Commonwealth gives the following recipe for making a substitute for lager beer.  All we have to say about the matter is that the lager beer made in San Antonio and New Braunfels, in this State, is almost if not quite equal in every particular to Scotch ale.  Anybody can try the following who may think it worth while:
               
Take an old boot leg, an old cast off red flannel shirt, and put in a five gallon keg of rain water.  Let it stand for two weeks and "ferment" well.  Then put it into a ten gallon keg, adding two quarts of China berries (to make a bead) three gallons of water from a tub used by shoemakers to soak leather in (three months old) to give it the right flavor, and one pound of assafoedita to give it the Dutch smell.  Let it stand for one week and add a couple of Florida beans, when it will be ready for use.  Saleratus or sal soda may be added ad libitum to make it rise. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, May 23, 1863, p. 1, c. 4
               
Dye.—Place in a kettle a layer of walnut leaves, then a layer of yarn, then a layer of leaves, then another of yarn, and so on till the kettle is full, pour on water till all is covered, and boil all day.  The next morning pour off the liquor into another vessel, and put fresh leaves with the yarn in layers as before, and boil again all day.  Then hang the yarn in the air a few days, after which wash it, and it will be a fine black.
               
The walnut leaves should be gathered in the autumn, just as they begin to fall from the trees, and dried in the shade. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, May 23, 1863, p. 1, c. 4
               
Paper Mills.—The Field and Fireside in reply to a query gives the following list:
               
There are several mills in Virginia; in N. Carolina there is a mill at Fayetteville, Raleigh, Shelby, Salem and Lincolnton.  In South Carolina there are two at Greenville controlled we believe, by the same company, and one at Bath, (agency at Augusta).  In Georgia there is one near Marietta.  In Tennessee we only know of one that is accessible, and that is near Knoxville, and not in operation.

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, June 6, 1863, p. 1, c. 1
               
Coffee is now worth one dollar and fifty cents per pound in Confederate money. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, June 6, 1863, p. 1, c. 1
               
New Paper.—We have received the third number of the Crockett Courier, Jo. A. Kirgan, editor.  It is a neat looking sheet, well printed, with good ink and good rollers probably, is of the blockade size like the rest of us, well edited, with considerable spice and abundance of good humor.  We are not acquainted with Jo. personally, but favorably by reputation, and wish him abundant success.  We put the Courier on our X list. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, June 6, 1863, p. 1, c. 5
               
A little Rebel Corporal of Waller's Battalion Texas mounted volunteers who has just returned home to Austin county, while a prisoner of war in the hands of the federals at Franklin, La., was invited by them to drink them a toast having promised to return the compliment which he did, by saying, "may Abe Lincoln's bones find a resting place in Hell, answering as a gridiron to broil Yankee souls on."  The Yankees declined any toast, but drank without. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, June 20, 1863, p. 1, c. 1
               
The East Texas Baptist State Convention meets at Tyler on the 26th inst. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, June 20, 1863, p. 1, c. 4
               
Judge Catlin has shown us a letter from Gen. Besser, stating that cloth will be furnished to soldiers' families hereafter, at eight cents per yard.  We are sorry to see the State pitch into the business of speculating off the poor soldiers' families.  So it is.  Is not this a pretty piece of business?  The legislature passes a law appropriating money to help the soldiers' families, and as soon as they adjourn, the Governor, Gen. Besser and some others try to get the money away from the families by charging more than four times the former prices for clothing.  Verily, the State has fallen into small hands, who seem to be trying to do a small business.  

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, June 27, 1863, p. 1, c. 3
               
Curtis, the cotton card speculator and Baxter the traitor, have been captured and carried back to Arkansas for trial.  The former says he went into the business in good faith, but after embarking, was informed that it was a swindle and agreed to aid in carrying it out.  The latter says though he joined the Arkansas renegades, he did not take up arms against the Confederates; that he was offered the position of Lieutenant Colonel in the Federal army but refused, and accepted a clerkship in some department and went off with them.  It is to be hoped they will reap their reward. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, July 4, 1863, p. 1, c. 5
               
A New Idea.—Cotton Cards.—We are informed that there is a farmer in Washington county, who spins his cotton filling without the aid of cards.  The process is simple.  He goes to the ginhouse or lint room, puts the light flakes of cotton ginned into a basket, not packed, carries it to the spinning wheel, and the tread is made with rapidity.  With a little practice, more thread can be made in a day than with the aid of cotton cards.  If kerseys are desired to be made put cow hair into the gin with seed cotton, and it will be thrown into the lint room nicely mixed.  The same process as above, will give him the filling he desires.  Will our farmers practice upon the important idea thrown out?—Milledgeville Recorder.
               
The expense of trying the above idea will not be much and in these days, with cotton cards at present prices, it might prove of great convenience. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, July 25, 1863, p. 1, c. 6
               
A writer in one of our exchanges in trying to show that this is "a rich man's war and a poor man's fight," "says that in Austin county a certain poor man has seven sons in the army, some of them under 18, while a certain rich planter, in Washington county, has three sons over 18, who ought to be fighting in defense of their country, are staying at home fortified by their money.  If they cannot purchase Doctors' certificates, they purchase substitutes—Ranger. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, July 25, 1863, p. 1, c. 4
               
Bro. Lancaster of the Ranger seems to coincide with us in reference to the speculating the State is practicing on the Soldiers' families.  He calls on other editors to express themselves on the subject.  This call will probably be heeded by the country papers, but alas, the Houston papers are mum.  Their reference for those in authority will not permit them to say a word.  For two years that the war has been raging, osnaburgs have been sold to any one who could get in the first application at 18 cents a yard.  But all at once it is determined to sell only to soldiers' families, and immediately the price is raised to 80 cents per yard.  None others can obtain cloth now.  The treatment the soldiers' families of this county have received from Gen. Besser must some day be made known. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, August 8, 1863, p. 1, c. 1
               
On Wednesday morning, the editor started for the Brigade camp, near Brenham, having volunteered in the State Troops.  He will make arrangements for the regular issue of the Countryman, if it be practicable, during his absence; if not practicable the paper will be suspended until he is discharged.  This will make no difference with subscribers, as they will receive their fifty numbers, though it may take a few more months to complete them.  But he don't intend that the publication of the Countryman shall stop if within his power to prevent it.  But the Texas Legislature, being so much wiser than the Congress at Richmond, having deemed his poor services more important in the field than in the sanctum, he has concluded to try the Yankees a whet, if they come about where he is. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, August 8, 1863, p. 1, c. 1
               
Flour.—We hear of almost every neighborhood fixing up one or more wagons to send into Northern Texas after flour.  We look for a large quantity to be brought down in a few weeks.  Whether it will be cheap or not, will depend a good deal upon the condition of the currency. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, August 8, 1863, p. 2, c. 1

Maj. Boone's Report

                                                                                                In Camp Col. Norwoods Plantation
                                                                                                               
May 26th 1863.
Col. W. H. Lane, comdg advance.
               
Col.:  I have the honor to submit to you the following report of a little affair with the enemy, which took place on the 21st ult., in Tanner's lane one mile below Cheneyville on the Bayou Boeuff.
               
Having been ordered to the advance with Waller's Battalion and Capt. Thurmond's Co. of Bagby's Regt., I directed Capt. Thurmond to take his Co. and Co. "B" and ten men of Co. "D" of Waller's Battalion all under command of 1st Lt. Morris of Co. "B" to march down the west bank of Bayou Boeuff, drive in the pickets of the enemy and if possible ascertain their strength and position.
               
I, at the same time marched with the remainder of Waller's Battalion down the East bank of the Bayou to Mrs. Tanner's plantation.  I then sent forward Co. "E" under command of 1st lt. C. C. Cox with instructions  [to] reinforce 1st Lt. T.  S. McDade of Co. "C" on picquett duty with a detachment of men near the enemy to drive in the picquetts of the enemy and if possible to draw him out.  I informed Lt. Cox that I should place the balance of the Battalion in ambush at Mrs. Tanner's place and directed him if the enemy advanced to retreat rapidly past the ambush and after passing it a sufficient distance to halt and charge back upon the pursuing foe.  I then placed Capt. W. A. McDade with his Co. "C" in ambush behind Mrs. Tanner's sugar mill with instructions to allow the advance of the enemy to pass him, then to fire and charge them.  I then placed Cos. "A, D and F" in the ambush in an orchard behind Mrs. Tanner's residence.  My plan was for Capt. McDade to cut off the advance and while he and Cox disposed of them I intended to charge the main body of the enemy and drive them back or at least hold them in check until the advance was disposed of.
               
Capt. Thurmond and Lt. Morris first engaged the enemy and drove in his picquett (a heavy one) in splendid style.  Pretty soon Cox also engaged the enemy and drove him in at once.  The enemy immediately brought out his force of Cavalry and as I expected he would do, made a rapid charge.
               
They came dashing up the wood, the enemy hotly pursuing.  When the advance of the enemy passed Capt. McDade, he opened fire and charged them most gallantly.  As soon as the enemy discovered my men they halted and formed in the lane and stood their ground firmly firing upon the head of my column until we had gotten within 30 feet of them when they broke and fled in the utmost confusion.
               
I followed them about 600 yards when still hearing firing in my rear I ordered a halt and turned back to the assistance of McDade and Cox.  My men being without sabres and having but few pistols, several of the enemy had succeeded in cutting their way through McDade's Co. and were handling my rear very roughly with their sabres.  Their work however was soon stopped and the whole of the advance was killed or captured except perhaps 4 or 5 who in the dust and confusion escaped by abandoning their horses and swimming the Bayou.  We took 13 prisoners and I learn from citizens that the enemy admit a loss of 17 killed and wounded.  We captured several horses, Sharp's rifles, pistols and sabres.  Our loss was one killed and eight wounded (four were wounded by sabres) and two missing.  We has several horses killed and wounded.
               
I could not say too much in praise of my officers and men.  They behaved most gallantly.  When my men had discharged their rifles, those who were without pistols clubbed their guns and used them against the sabres of the enemy.  It would seem invidious to particularize when all behaved so well but I cannot refrain from noticing the distinguished gallantry of some of my officers whose deeds came under my immediate observation.  I must call special attention to the gallant bearing of Capt. W. A. McDade, with his company armed with Enfield Rifles not more than one fourth of his men having pistols and none having sabres, he successfully engaged a superior number of the enemy armed with Sharps rifles, six shooters and sabres.  Lt. Cox commanding Co. "E" with about 30 men and Lt. T. S. McDade with 11 men of Co. "C" engaged the picquetts of the enemy but a few hundred yards from their camps, drove them in and then after retreating as ordered, halted their men and came gallantly to the assistance of Capt. McDade.  Lt. Weisiger commanding Co. "D" charged at the head of the column upon the main body of the enemy and after having had his horse shot under him, while dismounted, captured three of the enemy.
               
All of my officers did their duty nobly and none the less nobly did the men do theirs.  In truth, to the bravery and good conduct of the men we owe this little success.  Our strength was not more than 130 men all told while that of the enemy was not less than 300.
               
The advance of the enemy was Capt. Barritt's Co. of the 1st La. Cavalry, led by the much vaunted Barritt in person.  I am sorry to say that this officer escaped, but his escape was an ignominious one; he deserted his men in the dust and confusion, abandoned his arms and horse and harness, leaped the fence and took refuge in the Bayou which I am told he waded until he reached his camp about midnight, sans hat, sans coat sans boots and dripping wet.  This officer and his company were the especial boast and pride of the enemy.  The main body of the enemy I hear was under the command of the CELEBRATED MAJ. ROBERTSON, A RENEGADE TEXIAN.
               
                                                                I have the honor to be Col.
                                                                                               
Your ob't servt.
                                                                                                               
H. H.  Boone,
                                                                               
Maj. Com'dg Waller's Battalion.
                                                                               
The Galveston "News" will please copy. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, August 15, 1863, p.  1, c. 3
               
Cloth.—On the 3d inst., in company with our 'tother half, we made a visit to the Town of Travis, this county.  While there we examined some specimens of cloth manufactured by Mrs. E. Cleveland.  These specimens of cloth manufactured by Mrs. E. Cleveland.  These specimens were among the finest we have seen, and would rival those manufactured by machinery in the "old country."  The Jeans were superior both in color and texture to any home manufacture we have examined.  The "Military Grey" shown to us, will evidently wear longer, and looks as well as the best military cloth imported by way of Brownsville.  The manner of spinning, weaving and blending of the colors in these fabrics must be a secret which only the skill and discrimination of Mrs. Cleveland can accomplish.  The number of yards of cloth manufactured by Mrs. C. since the war began, would seem almost incredible, and we forbear to state it.  The cloth on hand now is only for home use; at least it is not for sale. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, August 22, 1863, p. 1, c. 2
               
The cloth for those families who had sent up their applications to the penitentiary, arrived about ten days ago, and all that has not been delivered, is at the County Clerk's office yet.  It is proper to state that the price of the cloth is in part reduced from what was first stated.  Families without slaves get their cloth at fifty cents per yard, while those who have slaves pay eighty cents.  To the above price is added five cents per yard for transportation, a charge which is very reasonable.  Those who have not made application to the penitentiary, had better do so at once.  Wonder if the State Troops now in service are entitled to cloth?  We presume they are. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, September 26, 1863, p. 1, c. 3

A Huntsville Item.

                This, our Item does not concern the printing establishment at Huntsville.  No.  We are not acquainted with the proprietor, editor, nor even the "devil" of that respectable establishment.
               
Our Item is simply a warning to the good people of Texas, who are probably preparing for a pilgrimage to Huntsville in search of cloth.
               
From the financial agency we received the following in answer to our interrogation:  "Mexican wool we cannot work.  Our cards are too fine.  The other quality, free from burrs, we may probably exchange some of our cotton goods for your own family use—one yard of plain Osnaburg for one pound of wool—for the balance we will give you 80 cts., if of good quality, on delivery here."
               
According to the above, having the affirmation of a probability, we rigged up a team and loaded our wagon with wool of good quality to procure a suit of clothes for our family all round.  After various adventures and hardships "by flood and field," we arrived, early one morning at the penitentiary building—learned that the office hours of the financial agent are from 9 A.M. to 3 P.M. so made use of the permission to go through the factory, where cotton and wool is manufactured into thousands of yards of cloth.
               
We will not pretend to speak of the factory as it would fill a volume if we had the ability to write on the subject.
               
Of course we were convinced that we were, according to the financial agent's letter, entitled to our share of the cloth.  But at 9 o'clock we were informed by Gen. Besser that he had not given us a positive promise and that we would have to retire without a yard of cloth, if it were a thousand miles.
               
Our affidavits were not taken into consideration, our wool not looked at, and we remained in astonishment and silence for a while in the office.  There were applicants from 50 to 280 miles with their loads of wool to be disappointed as wee were.  Among the many applicants who had pilgrimaged to the factory for relief were soldiers' wives, and soldiers' mothers who had from three to five sons in the army.  They had bought wool for $1,00 to $1,50 per pound, having information that the factory would exchange cloth for it.  The ladies were sarcastically told to go home and attend to their spinning wheels and looms.  A disabled soldier, using crutches, had come 150 miles to present the claims of needy soldiers' families and the agent admitted that he was entitled to a certain share of cloth—but there was an insignificant lack of form in the application, and therefore the invalid soldier had to return without accomplishing anything for himself or his friends.  In our humble opinion there is something foul in Denmark.  We saw that there was plenty of cloth on hand, and were informed that near 5000 yds are daily made.  The wool is needed for the fabrics, and had to be hauled away to the original sheep range, if people would not take half price in currency.
               
What does it mean?  The day we were at the agency everybody was heard with a refusal to exchange.  The claims presented were found "not valid"—the affidavits "not correct."  Fault finding seemed to be the order of the day.  However one young man received in exchange a lot of lard for cloth—from which it appeared the agent needed greasing more than anything else.
               
The office hours of the financial agent are from 9 to 3.  The office hours of the farmer and wagoner are from daylight till dark night.  The soldiers' office hours are only 24 per day.  Now if the "minister of the sanctum" of our pilgrimage had an idea of a wearisome journey such as ours, he would inform the applicant positively and not probably.
               
It should be positively known what articles will be accepted for exchange, and the time should be specified, so that the people of the State not be misled by their State factory.  Our county papers will give the people the proper information, the agent will give notice as he ought to do in the Huntsville Item.    M. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, October 10, 1863, p. 1, c. 2
               
To the Ladies of Austin County.—In consequence of rapid marches and movements upon the enemy in June last and for want of transportation the  Surgeon of Flournoy's (16th Texas Infantry) Regt. was forced to turn in all of the tents and other Hospital property at Alexandria.  The tents have been lost to the Regiment by being appropriated by some other command, it is now impossible to find them.  There exists some uncertainty as to whether tents will be furnished this Regiment or not and fearing that cold weather will come upon us ere this is done I am induced to call upon you to provide us with this indispensable as you are aware it is hard enough for well men to be without shelter as we are, much less the sick.  Many of you have near and dear friends here and who are likely to come under my care.  Come forward and assist me in this matter and I feel that I need not assure you that nothing will be spared by me to insure their welfare.  For further particulars you are referred to Mr. E. Cleveland of Travis or Judge Crump of Austin Co.                                                                                                                                          W. I. Cocke.                Surgeon 16th Regt. Texas Infantry. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, October 31, 1863, p. 2, c. 1
               
We wonder if there are any counties to which the following applies other than Houston county?  We find it in last week's Quid Nunc.
               
WANTED.—All ladies in Houston and surrounding counties who have cloth on hand, which they can spare are requested to donate it to the ladies of Crockett for the purpose of making petticoats for the minute men of this county, who have backed out of the service.  We think the petticoat most suitable for them in these times.  By thus clothing them we think we can save our country the shame and reproach which will be cast upon it, and ourselves the mortification of meeting minute men who make great war speeches, but who, on the approach of danger hoist the white feather and retire from the field.  Those clothed with the petticoat, as all are aware are allowed full license of the tounge [sic] but are not held responsible for what they may say or do.  Owing to the scarcity of cloth in the county, we will require the Merchants to furnish them selves.
                                                                               
Grandma Matlock.
                                                                                               
[Victoria Advocate. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, November 7, 1863, p. 2, c. 1
               
Alexandria Oct. 30th.—Forth [sic] one prisoners captured below, arrived here a day or two since. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, November 14, 1863, p. 1, c. 4

To the Ladies of Austin County.

                I have learned through reliable men who have recently returned from the camp of our troops in Louisiana, that there are many men in Flournoy's Regiment and particularly in Capt. Zimri Hunt's company who are almost destitute of clothing.  Many of these men are not able to supply themselves, nor have they friends at home able to furnish them.  These men are our friends, and neighbors, they are in the field, enduring the hardships and privations of the camp, to defend and protect us and ours.  The cold blasts of winter are approaching and these men must be protected against them.  I now appeal to the ladies of this county for their relief, they need socks, shoes, shirts and in fact every species of clothing, and some money will be required to defray transportation expenses.  If a supply can be obtained I pledge myself that the articles shall be forwarded to the men.  I suggest Judge W.  E. Crump and B. F. Elliott (Dist. Clerk) on the west and Judge E. Waller and F. J. Cooke on the East side of Brazos, as suitable persons to deposit articles with, and I will take charge of such as may be sent to me.
                                                                                                                               
E. Cleveland,
                                                                                                                       
Travis, Nov. 7th 1863. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, November 14, 1863, p. 1, c. 4
               
To Make Indelible Ink.—Green persimmons, say twelve of them, mash them, pour on water enough to cover them.  Boil over slow fire and not boil them too much, add in a small piece of copperas.  This ink will not change color and cannot be washed or rubbed out.  A good article of sugar it is said, can be made from persimmons. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, November 28, 1863, p. 1, c. 2
               
The Federal prisoners who passed through Marshall a few days ago seemed to exult in the depreciation of our currency, and that they could get off their Lincoln "greenbacks" at a high premium.  The trade in Abolition currency ought not to be permitted for the sole purpose is to obtain funds to trade with the enemy.                                                                         [Republican. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, December 5, 1863, p. 1, c. 2
               
The Victoria Advocate says a fine quality of oil is being made from the Buckeye nut, by W. O. Reagan of that place.  The nut is found in great abundance in our river bottoms. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, January 28, 1864, p. 1, c. 1
               
Violent Death.—The Countryman, contrary to our announcement of last week, will not go on the "even tenor" of its way.  It dies this week a violent death.  The awful fiat was pronounced by the supreme authority of the State of Texas calling to the tented field the residue of the unterrified and invincible State Troops is one.  Although the Countryman dies, it is not as one without hope of a glorious and happy future.  Till that period dawns upon us, beloved readers, fare ye well. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, March 10, 1864, p. 1, c. 1
               
Though the Texas Ranger gave the Countryman a "parting salute," saying that we had suspended for the want of paper, the lady editor of that paper was never more mistaken in her life.  Had she looked at the number of the 28th January last, the last number issued, she would have seen that the Countryman suspended, not for want of paper, but on account of the Militia Law, which ordered our printer into the field.  As for paper, why, bless the Texas Ranger, we expect to have enough good white paper to print the Countryman upon, for twelve months after the supply of old yellow wrapping paper on which the Ranger is printed shall have been exhausted. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, March 10, 1864, p. 2, c. 5
               
Nor has the war failed to reveal admirable virtues in the Southern people.  The passionate bravery of the men who charged up to the very throats of our cannon at Fort Robinett; the rapid marching and persistent fighting that dispersed McClellan's army from before Richmond; the stubborn spirit that made them devour their mules before they yielded, at Vicksburg; and the warlike skill and ingenuity that have enabled them to avoid decisive disaster, through three years of superior numbers—these are qualities which we are bound to appreciate, whether we are willing to do so or not.  The people of the South are no mean foes.  They are Americans.  St. Louis Union. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, March 24, 1864, p. 1, c. 2
               
A Loom.—We are much in want of a loom.  This is a favorable opportunity for some one who is indebted to us to help us.  Somebody furnish us with a loom, quick, and we'll soon have a new pair of pants.  Don't all speak at once! 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, March 31, 1864, p. 2, c. 1.  [Summary:  Southern Girl's Song] 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, March 31, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
               
Mr. Editor:--
               
Mr. Geo. W. Johnson and myself have recently invented and tested a new spinning machine, which we call "the Spinning Jack"—it is more simple in construction, a more effective carder and spinner, and can be afforded at a lower price than any other spinning machinery of the same class, intended for home and plantation use.  We have a modification of the "spinning Jack" still more simple, adapted to the production of a coarse thread for negro cloth, which is within the capacity of the dullest negro to use and keep in order.  It is the intention to start an establishment capable of supplying to some extent the demand which must arise for these machines as soon as possible, at Bellville, or elsewhere.
               
The machine and principles involved in its construction will be made public as soon as the necessary steps are taken to secure a patent.
                                                                                                                               
S. Hayford. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, April 11, 1864, p. 1, c. 3
               
The habeas corpus case of Peebles, Baldwin, and others, arrested for treason and treasonable practices, which has for the last week or ten days occupied the attention of the Supreme Court and excited good deal of interest, was finally disposed of on yesterday.  On Friday, Messrs. Cone, Robards and Ford, the counsel for the respondents, (the military authorities) made a motion to remand the prisoners to the custody of those authorities, by whom they had been arrested.  This was based upon the affidavit of Maj.  Sparks that he had been ordered by Lieut.  Gen. Smith to arrest and detain them, in pursuance of the late act of Congress suspending the writ of habeas corpus.  The Court held that Congress had the constitutional right to suspend the writ, and tough the evidence was strongly persuasive, it was not legally sufficient, as the act required such facts to be sworn certificate of the officer holding them in custody, and overruled the motion.  The case was then submitted upon the petition only without going into the merits of the case, and without the introduction of testimony.
               
The Court discharged the prisoners from custody, as no evidence was introduced to support the charges set forth in the returns, but refused to grant a writ to prevent their being again arrested, as the party who might arrest them was amenable to the law, if he did any act to violate it; and clearly intimated that the military had the right to re-arrest them.  They were subsequently arrested by Maj. Sparks, by order of Lt. Gen. Smith commanding the Trans-Mississippi Department, who is the person authorized by the recent act of Congress to order such arrest.  Everything passed off quietly and the prisoners were placed under guard and sent to Houston.
               
Throughout the investigation the Court showed a disposition to extend every courtesy and aid to the military authorities in the discharge of their duties, and a disposition was shown by the military authorities to submit to the court in its decision.  An apparent collision arose at one time through a misapprehension of facts, which were remied [remedied?] as soon as practicable, and we presume to the satisfaction of the Court.  We will endeavor in our next to give a more detailed account of this interesting case, the first which has occurred since the suspension of the write of habeas corpus by Congress.—Gazette, March 30th

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, June 21, 1864, p. 2, c. 3

Some Hideous Plays on Names.

What lady is good to eat?  Sal Ladd.
What lady is good to eat with her?  Olive Oil.
What lady is made to carry burdens?  Ella Fant.
What lady preaches in the pulpit?  Minnie Stir.
What lady has to fight the Indians?  Emma Grant.
What lady helps her?  Minnie Rifle.
What lady does everybody desire?  Ann U. Ity.
What lady is acquainted with surgery?  Ann Atomy.
What lady lived in Noah's time?  Ann  T. Diluvian.
What lady is fond of debate?  Polly Tishun.
What lady votes?  Della Gate.
What lady paints portraits?  Minnie A. Choor.
What lady paints comic ones?  Carrie K. Choor.
What lady is fond of giving?  Jennie Rossity.
What lady is much talked of now?  Amelia Ration.
What lady is used to war?  Milly Tairy.
What lady is lively and gay?  Annie Mation.
What ladies are voracious?  Annie Condor and Allie Gaiter. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, July 5, 1864, p. 1, c. 5
               
Good Joke on Lottie.—Since the advent of Gen. Logan's splendid corps at Huntsville, the rooms in the principal hotels have been in demand.
               
A beautiful and accomplished actress had been staying at the Huntsville Hotel, and in a "minute, minute and a half or two minutes" after she had vacated her room, the gallant Gen. O. was assigned to it by the landlord.  The General, on examining his bed previous to retiring, found a snowy robe de nuit neatly folded under his pillow, marked in delicate characters with the name of the fair owner.  The chambermaid was called and asked by the General, holding the garment in his hand, "Do you know Miss Lottie Hough?"
               
"Yes," answered the chambermaid.
               
"Then carry this to her with my compliments, and say Gen. O_____ is not in the habit of sleeping with empty night-gowns."—Chattanooga Gazette. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, July 12, 1864, p. 1, c. 3

Mayor Dye's Family Expelled from the City of Brownsville

                Our readers are aware that Mayor Dye when the Yankees first landed at Brownsville, went out and met them and surrendered the city into their hands, and received them with open hands.  The Mayor had previously been an open-mouthed secessionist, but the presumption is, that the hope of saving his property, caused this sudden change to come over the spirit of his dreams.  It seems, however, that the Mayor's wife and two daughters who are intelligent, accomplished ladies, were not so easily converted, to the Lincoln cause.  As an evidence of their rebel proclivities, when the Yankee officers, visited their house, the ladies were never at home.  That was too bad.  Finally the ladies were called on and officially informed that they must do one of two things—either take the 'ironclad oath,' or leave the United States.  The ladies promptly replied that whatever might be the consequences, they would never take the oath.  Whereupon the Yankee officer requested them to fix upon some hour when they should be set across the river.  This they refused.  He then told them that he would appoint the time of their departure at 4 o'clock that evening.  The ladies went to work to get ready to leave their home and country, and having made the necessary preparations before the appointed hour had arrived, and wishing to get off without exciting attention, they quietly proceeded to the river, when they were met by a squad of Yankee soldiers, who refused to allow them to cross.  They were then marched back to the Provost marshal's office, when an order was issued forever expelling them from the United States, on account of their inveterate rebel proclivities and sympathies.  They were then escorted by the guard, with as much parade as if they had in charge a thousand rebel prisoners, to the river to be crossed over to Matamoros.
               
It so happened that a Mexican Colonel was at the boat and about to cross at the same time.  Mayor Dye, who by this time had arrived, to bid his fleeing family farewell, spoke to the Mexican officer in Spanish, requesting him to see the ladies safely conducted to a friend's house in Matamoros.  To which the Mexican officer replied aloud in English:  "I shall most certainly escort the ladies to your friend's house.  The Mexican flag has ever protected the ladies, no matter from what country they came!"
               
When the boat reached the middle of the river, one of the Mayor's daughters turned to the Yankee vandals and waving her handkerchief, remarked in substance as follows:  "You have driven us from our home and country to take refuge among foreigners and strangers, but thank God!  there are Confederate soldiers enough in Texas to drive you out of Brownsville, and off of Texas soil, and before next Fall it will be done!"
               
While we can but have mingled feelings of pity and contempt for Maj. [sic] Dye, we glory in the spunk of his noble wife and daughters!  God bless them, and all our noble Southern mothers and daughters!  They are as true as steel.  Their patriotism is an ever-increasing, ever-glowing fame—warming, enlightening, cheering all around.—Goliad Messenger. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, July 26, 1864, p. 2, c, 1
A Manufacturing Town.—Danville, Virginia is becoming quite a manufacturing town.  The Register says:--"As a part of the machinery lately introduced into this town, we may mention an apparatus for knitting which has just been put up, and is now in successful operation.  It not being open to general inspection, we have not had the opportunity of witnessing the working of this machine, but we understand it is a valuable invention for saving labor, as it will turn out several dozen pairs of stockings per hour.  It is something new in this land.  The Yankees have heretofore worked the machinery for the Southern people, and no doubt this is one of their machines, brought hither to help along the needles of our good country-women of the South.  We may add, that we have now in Danville, established since the commencement of the wear, two large woolen mills, two factories for making cotton cards, a match factory, and a knitting establishment.  But there is plenty of water-power yet unemployed." 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, August 16, 1864, p. 1, c. 1
               
If people will not keep their hands and faces clean after reading the following, it is not our fault.  We therefore publish a receipt for making soap out of materials that can always be obtained in spite of the blockaders, and thus wash our hands from further responsibility:
               
First boil a ley [lye] from oak and hickory ashes, strong enough to eat a feather; put the ley into tubs until it settles, and then strain through a coarse towel.
               
Put about three gallons of this ley into a large wash kettle or pot, and after boiling a few minutes add eight pounds of clear lard; boil briskly four or five hours, adding frequently several gourds full of weak ley, until a good soap is made entirely free from grease.  Now draw the fire away from the pot and stir into the soap salt until the soap becomes thin and runs off of the paddle like buttermilk; it is then turned.  Put the fire under again, and after boiling the soap for fifteen minutes, pour into it about two quarts of weak brine, and take the pot immediately from the fire, the soap which will rise like foam to the top must be skimmed off immediately into wash-bowls.
               
You may then perfume it with oil of burgamot, cinnamon, lemon, sassafras, or any other perfume, as your taste directs.  It may be colored by stirring into it a small quantity of vermillion, Spanish brown or Venetian red—I use vermillion.
               
If you desire to marble the soap, you must mix the coloring matter with only a small portion of the soap and after pouring a thin layer of white soap into the mould, stripe it over with the color, again pour on white, color again, pour on white, color again, and so on until the pan is full.  I use stove pans for moulding, and when hard, cut it by the square into cakes of desirable size; let these dry for about a week, then smooth them off with a plane.  The trimmings may all be melted and moulded over so that nothing will be wasted.—Telegraph. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, August 16, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
               
A Yankee Surgeoness.—Among the recent captures of Johnston's army was a female yankee surgeon.  A correspondent of the Macon Confederate thus describes her:
               
She is apparently of about twenty eight or thirty summers; a little worn, but still passably good looking.  Hair dark and gathered under a silk net; figure about five feet six and rather thin.
               
Her costume is as novel as her position.  Bloomer costume of blue broadcloth trimmed with brass buttons; yankee uniform hat, with cord tassels; surgeon's green silk sash, worn over the right shoulder and across the breast, fastening on the left side.  Over her front she wore a blue military overcoat and cape.  Lastly she wore boots, (and let me say that, in respect to feet there was more of her person parallel to the earth than strict rules of beauty would require,) plain calfskin boots over her dress.
               
When taken she was near our picket lines with the purpose, as she states, of sending some letters through our lines.  She was mounted on a small and rather indifferent looking horse (if you have any tears to shed, prepare to shed them now.)  Yes, sir, I say it—I say she was riding a man's saddle, with—one foot in each stirrup.
               
The Doctor, along with her stirrups, got her boot into it this time.  She appeared a little embarrassed—to her credit be it said—but answered promptly and intelligently.
               
She has in her face and manner the 'unrectified yankee,' but her manners are better than those of a majority of her tribe. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, September 6, 1864, p. 1, c. 5
               
The following in the process to condense milk for the soldiers:
               
Place two quarts of new milk in a vessel over a slow fire, stir it to prevent burning, until it is about the thickness of cream, add one pound of sugar, a little at a time, stirring constantly, till it becomes thick and stiff, then spread on plates and dry in the oven or the sun, and powder it with a knife or spoon.  It can be sent in papers, and serves for both milk and sugar when dissolved in coffee or tea. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, September 13, 1864, p. 2, c. 1

[From the State Gazette.]
Special Correspondence.

                                                                                                                Tyler, July 29, 1864.
               
Editor Gazette:--About a week ago 150 men of Col. Anderson's Regiment, who were guarding the Federal prisoners near here, organized under a Lieutenant, and left.  Their horses had come in from grazing the day before, and they are well armed and mounted.  Col. Anderson endeavored to overtake them with a small force, and induce or compel them to return, but was unable to overtake them.  They deserted in open day, fell into line at the sound of the trumpet, and are by this time on the frontier, I presume.
               
For a day or two the Federals were very insecurely guarded, and some apprehensions were felt that they would escape and do much damage, but all is safe now.  What should be the punishment for men so lost to honor as to desert their post, leaving 3000 to 4000 miscreants almost unguarded in the heart of the country, thus endangering the lives and property of the whole country to pillage and slaughter.
               
Ex Gov. Col. Baylor, member of congress for this district, has just returned from Richmond, and yesterday evening addressed the people at the Methodist church.  He left this side of the Mississippi river after the battle of Mansfield, and was there only during the latter part of the session.
               
. . . He visited the hospitals every where on his route and at Richmond, and every where he found the soldiers well attended to; the ladies particularly were indefatigable in their efforts to alleviate the sufferings of the soldiers.  Go where he would, there he found the ladies favouring the sick, writing letters for them, or bathing their fevered heads; and at railroad depots he found always a table set out, and refreshments provided for the hungry and weary soldier, without money and without price.  Nearly every one was asked who came "are you a soldier?" and often one was sorry to acknowledge that he was not, and had to stand aside.  This kindness is shown, not only in the interior, but where the ravages of war have desolated the country.  Where hasty cabins are put up amid the ruin of villages, and in all other places, a soldier can pay nothing; but as soon as he landed on  Texas soil, he saw an Irishman, who had married in Texas, and was returning to his home with his arm shattered, and a [illegible], with two or three minie balls in his leg, charged $20 each for staying all night; and a lady in this State, who had taken in and nursed a sick soldier until he recovered, learned a short time after, that her son, who was returning home sick and wounded, died by the road side, because no one would take him in; now she declares she will never take in another.  This was in Texas.  And this is the treatment which these men, who had been three years and more fighting your battles on the other side of the Mississippi River meet with here.  The soldiers on the other side had heard that soldiers were not so well treated on this, and asked him if it was true?  He did not wish to tell a downright lie; so said it occasionally happened.  But he found the occasion was very often.  Farmers object to taking in soldiers, they say, because they miss spoons, towels, &c., and often in going through the country they are scattered for miles, taking whatsoever they want.  Let such young men be taken up and black jacked.  Let soldiers remember that to the extent they injure farmers they injure the army; the farmer must feed the army.  Some say they would as lief have the Yankees as our own soldiers.  The Yankees take all, and our own soldiers leave nothing.  But in the one case, it makes our people determined to drive the invaders out, and in the other it demoralizes both the farmers and the army.  These were plain truths; as a public man, as their representative, he would only tell them truth.  It was much more pleasant to say, "we are all right, and doing our duty," but, he preferred telling them the truth that the evils may be corrected. . . .
               
I have given imperfectly the substance of Col. Baylor's talk.  It was plain and to the point.
               
I understand that in a few days two thousand more of the Federal prisoners will leave here to be exchanged.  It would be a great relief to this section of the country if all were to be taken away, for they are a heavy burden, added to the necessary demands of our own army. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, September 20, 1864, p. 1, c. 4
               
Two parts of Epsom Salts and one of Salt, is said to be an unfailing remedy for flux—one dose frequently curing, if taken in time.
               
We find the following valuable recipe, worth more than the price of a year's subscription, in the Tyler Reporter:
               
To Make Soda.—To a gallon of strong ley add one quart of salt, and boil down.  This will make good Soda for household purposes.  It can be done directly. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, September 27, 1864, p. 2, c. 1
                                                                                               
Brenham, Texas, Sept. 9th, 1864
               
Ed. News:--I send you a sample of wool dyed by Mrs. Caldwell and her daughter, Miss Kate Caldwell.  It is the only home dye I have seen that strong soap and hot water will not fade.
               
Process.—Take the pear from the large size cactus, bruise it well, put it in a tub, a layer of the bruised pears and then a thin layer of wool and continue that until the tub is nearly full, put a light weight on it, add no water, set it in the sun or by a stove for six or eight days and you have the color of the sample.  Nothing is required to set the color.                                                    J.K.M.
               
The sample can be seen at our office.  It is what the ladies call salferreno [sic] color (we have no name for it.)  It is a reddish purple.  We are heartily glad at every success of this kind.  Until we become self-sustaining and self supplying, we can never be a free people.
                                                                                                               
[Galveston News. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, September 27, 1864, p. 2, c. 3
               
A Female Spy.—Yesterday, Mrs. Alice Gordon Bennett was received in this city from the front, to be tried as a rebel spy.  It appears that a few days since she made her way through our lines near Atlanta and under disguise, had several communications with the officers in command, after which she endeavored to make her way back to the South.  While endeavoring to pass through the lines, she was arrested and sent to the city under guard.  She states that her husband is on the Wynona, one of Commodore Farragut's fleet, and at her own request she will be sent to New Orleans for trial.
                                                                                                                             
[Louisville Democrat. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, November 1, 1864, p. 1, c. 2
               
Marriage of a Confederate Heroine.—On the 25th, a most interesting ceremony of marriage took place at the church of St. James, Piccadilly, London.  The bridegroom, Lt. Samuel Wilde Hardinge, who is about 30 years of age, was an officer in the United States navy, holding the rank of Lt. on board the American war steamer Connactacu.  The lady, who is about the same age as the gallant bridegroom, was the daughter of Gen. Boyde, of the army of the Southern States,, who lately expired in prison, having been made a prisoner by the Federals.  The lady's career is full of the most eventful, heroic, and romantic features.  Her father, who possessed vast estates in Virginia, early embraced the cause of Southern independence, early embraced the cause of Southern independence [sic] was soon entrusted with command, obtaining the rank of general.  His daughter, the bride, enthusiastically embraced the cause, followed her father to the field and accompanied him throughout his campaign with the celebrated "Stonewall" Jackson, and on two occasions, heroically, as a modern Joan of Arc led on the troops to battle; She was, however in a skirmish captured, and made prisoner, and conveyed to Washington where she was imprisoned.  Here she remained 13 months, when she was exchanged for Gen. Cochrane, who had been made prisoner by the Confederates.  On her return to the South, she went on board the Greyhound, Confederate steamer which was captured by the Federal steamer Connactacu while running the blockade.  Lt. Hardinge was sent on board the Greyhound as a prizemaster, with his young heroine as a prisoner.  The result was that they mutually became enamoured and escaped together from the ship, and found their way to this country, the bride having succeeded in withdrawing her lover from his allegiance to the United States flag, and enlisted his sympathies and support for the South.  It is the intention of Lt. Hardinge with his bride to leave this country at the latter end of Sept. to run the blockade and enter the service of the Southern States.  The marriage cortege was comparatively private, being confined to the bridesmaid and two or three lady friends, the bridegroom being attended by a number of American gentlemen connected with the South.  After the conclusion of the ceremony the parties repaired to the Brunswick Hotel Jermyn street, where the bridegroom has resided since his sojourn in this country, and partook of an elegant dejeuner.—London Paper. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, December 13, 1864, p. 1, c. 3
               
We learn the penitentiary directors are now selling some cloth for specie, or have instructed its sale, as supplies can no longer be obtained for material—every dealer being glutted.  But the price seems to us enormous--$2 a yard for woolens or jeans, and 60 to 70c for lowells.  This is certainly oppressive on poor people, while rich ones won't mind it.  We cannot think his excellency the governor will approve such a steep tariff.  From $6 new issue to $2 specie, is a "tremendous leap."
                                                                                                               
Huntsville Item. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, December 13, 1864, p. 2, c. 2
               
We learn that the specie prices of many articles are advancing.  Cotton cards, for instance, are now sold for $7, and wool cards for $6 per pair, while a few days ago they could be had for some two dollars less per pair.—Galveston News. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, February 28, 1865, p. 1, c. 2
               
We are much gratified to see the Galveston News, (Tri-weekly), enlarged to a full sheet, and printed in type of such size that it may be read by candle-light without spectacles.  This ought to be a subject for rejoicing all over the country. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, February 28, 1865, p. 2, c. 1
[From the Natchitoches Times.]

How to Win Woman's Favor.

                It's very easy to make yourself popular among the ladies.  Don't stand back and tremble, and think because you haven't the figure of Adonis or the face of Apollo, you stand no chance at all.  It is not mustaches and straight noses that do the business.  Women, bless their souls, don't care a fig for such things.  Only remember a few preliminaries and you can make them like you, even if your hair is red and your mouth wide.
               
When you go to make an evening call don't start too early.  Ladies are not well pleased to be caught before their curls and basques are arranged.  Be particularly careful not to sit down on the cat or kick the dog across the floor—the girls are sure to appreciate you when you know how to be polite to their pets.  If there's a piece of worsted work, admire it; don't forget to mistake the artificial flowers in the vases for real; if the young lady is doing crochet-work, ask her if she can't teach you.  Beyond everything don't tip back in your chair, for every crack in the fragile furniture there'll be more fracture in your friendship!  And when she begins to yawn behind her pocket-handkerchief, take up your hat and go.  "Short and sweet, long and bitter;" is a good motto for evening visits.
               
When you are out walking with a lady don't go striding along until she is forced to run to keep up with you—the first you know she will veer off.  Notice just how she walks and moderate your pace accordingly.  If she meets a feminine acquaintance and stops for a nice little chat, it is essential that you should not manifest impatience by balancing first on one heel and then on the other.  If she wants to look into a shop window, stop and admire too, though you may not know a ribbon from a railway station.  Tell her how becoming her new bonnet is, and implore her to wear it the next time she goes to the opera with you.  If you meet a civil young man at her house, don't be rude to him, it is the worst policy in the world.  Be as polite as possible to him; court him, if you can, with courtesy.  Never laugh loud in a parlor, and remember to speak low.  It's just as well not to talk very much yourself; let the ladies have the preference, and they will prefer your society accordingly.  Be blind and deaf to whatever they may choose to keep from your sight and hearing—a steel spring escaping from a crinoline, for instance, or papa in the hall wondering "whether that young fellow means to go home to night or not!"
               
Nothing easier than to be a favorite with the ladies.  Humor them, wait on them, study their little peculiarities, be always ready to escort them anywhere, arouse them when they are dull, and laugh with them when they are lively, and although you may be as homely as a hedge fence, they will like you ten times better than the handsome block-head who thinks his looks are going to do everything for him.
               
Your country correspondent,
                                                                                                                               
Gertrude.
               
Summer Grove, La. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, March 7, 1865, p. 1, c. 1
               
The Texas Christian Advocate has been revived, we understand, tho' we have not been favored with exchange. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, March 7, 1865, p. 1, c. 2
               
Peach Leaf Yeast.—Hops cost two dollars per pound, leaves cost nothing and peach leaves make better yeast than hops.  Thus:  take three handfuls of peach leaves and three medium sized potatoes, and boil them in two quarts of water until the potatoes are done; take out the leaves and throw them away, peal the potatoes and rub them up with a pint of flour, adding cool water sufficient to make a paste, then pour on the hot peach leaf tea, and let it stand for about five minutes.  If you add to this a little old yeast, it will be ready for use in three hours.  If you add none, it will require a day and night before use.  Leaves dried in shade are as good as fresh ones.  As this is stronger than hop yeast, less should be used in making up the dough.—Exchange.
               
Recipe for Dying Slate Color.—Equal portions of the inside bark of sassafras and willow, boiled in a brass kettle; strain the decoction from the bark, and add to two gallons of the fluid a small table spoonful of copperas, the same of alum, or a small portion of the latter.  Have the wool well scoured, and taken out of a clean soapsuds; wring it dry and put it into the dye, let it boil a short time raising it out to get air frequently; dry it and then wash it in suds until quite cleansed from the smell of dye.  It is a permanent color, and does not take a great quantity of the bark above names; it is richer than about any other bark I have ever used.
               
The black jack will dye a good slate color, prepared in the same way, but not so permanent a color as the other.
 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, March 7, 1865, p. 1, c. 5

Refugees.

                Upon our return from the army, last summer, after an absence from home, almost unbroken, of three years, we found that a great many changes had been wrought, not the least observable of which was the great number of new and strange faces with which we met.  We soon found that many of these were officers and soldiers, assigned to duty and detailed, in the various military departments of the post, whilst many were our unfortunate brothers and sisters of Missouri, Ark., La., Mississippi and Kentucky, who had been driven from their homes, by the ruthless minions of Lincoln, all of them having suffered greatly in their pecuniary interests, and many made penniless widows and orphans.  These we learned were called "refugees," and, that with some ungenerous citizens, it was frequently used as a term of reproach.  This is wrong if for no other reason, because it is uncharitable, unchristian and heartless.
               
We came to Texas some fifteen years ago and remember that there was then a class of men in that country, and coming in from the elder States, who were called "refugees."  It was not said that they had sought the city of refuge, for protection against a pitiless, barbarous public enemy, but had found it convenient to use old Sols sleeping time, to avoid an officer of the law, armed with a little "capias" or "fi-fa!"  It would be well enough for some of them to remember, although now old citizens, times that are gone, and exercise a little more charity towards the unfortunate of the present day.  But to view the question in a different light; "curses like chickens come home to roost," and it may be that before another harvest is gathered, we who are "old citizens" may be driven by the same causes which have cast many in our midst, to seek a home and immunity from carnage, in the land of strangers.
               
The same uncharitable proscription, applied to us then would be any thing but agreeable.  But leaving out of view the moral and social wrong, which is committed by the indulgence of this proscriptive feeling, every thinking man will admit that it is unwise.  The greater the wealth and industry of a State, the lighter will be the burden of taxation for its support, upon each individual.  The larger the number of intelligent, enterprising families in a community, the greater are the facilities for education and the [?] enjoyment of religious privileges.  School houses and churches will spring up as if by magic, where they go; society is improved in morals and manners and the State is benefited.  So far as our observation, and it has not been very limited, will enable us to judge, the "refugees," men and women, are even handed with our older citizens, in all the work of charity, benevolence, and patriotism which the unfortunate condition of our country requires at their hands.  We feel that we speak the mind of a large majority of our old citizens when we bid them a hearty welcome to Texas, and express the hope, that, although driven by adversity to seek a temporary asylum with us, the attractions may be sufficient to induce them to make it their permanent home—Tyler Journal. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, March 7, 1865, p. 2, c. 1
               
We have a considerable supply of printing paper at Hempstead, but owing to bad weather and worse roads, we are unable to get it home.  Should our paper fail next week, we opine it will be for the want of that paper. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, March 7, 1865, p. 2, c. 4
               
The Confederate News publishes a full sheet, doubling some of its matter.  A half sheet would look better to our mind's eye.  But this is a bad time to criticise [sic] a paper for doing too much.  We notice that the news office is for sale. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, May 2, 1865, p. 3, c. 4
               
To Render Textile Fabrics Waterproof.—Take one pound of wheat bran, and one ounce of glue, and boil them in three gallons of water in a tin vessel for half an hour.  Now lift the vessel from the fire, and set it aside for ten minutes; during this period the bran will fall to the bottom, leaving a clear liquor above, which is to be poured off, and the bran thrown away; one pound of bar soap cut into small pieces is now to be dissolved in it.  The liquor may be put on the fire in a tin pan, and stirred until all the soap is dissolved.  In another vessel one pound of alum is dissolved in half a gallon of water; this must be added to the soap-bran liquor while it is boiling, and all is well stirred; this forms the water-proofing liquor.  It is used while cool.  The textile fabric to be rendered water-proof is immersed in it, and pressed between the hands until it is perfectly saturated.  It is now wrung, to squeeze out as much of the free liquor as possible then shaken or stretched, and hung up to dry in a warm room, or in a dry atmosphere out doors.  When dry, the fabric or cloth so treated will repel rain and moisture, but allow the air or perspiration to pass through it.
               
The alum, gluten, gelatine [sic], and soap unite together and form an insoluble compound which coats every fibre of the textile fabric, and when dry repel water like the natural oil in the feathers of a duck.  There are various substances which are soluble in water singly, but when combined form insoluble compounds, and vice versa.  Alum, soap, and gelatine are soluble in water singly, but form insoluble compounds when united chemically.  Oil is insoluble in water singly, but combined with caustic soda or potash it forms soluble soap.  Such are some of the usual curiosities of chemistry. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, May 2, 1865, p. 2, c. 5

Preserve Your Letters.

                Ed. Tel.—I wish through your Journal and all others in Texas who may be kind enough to copy this article, to make a suggestion to a majority of this State.  It is to preserve your letters received from the army, as well [as] those on hand as those hereafter to be received.  I refer to letters which speak of events relative to military movements, individual officers or soldiers.  A vast amount of most reliable history, news to be found in official documents or newspapers, is embraced in private letters from men in the army to their friends at home.  Invaluable anecdotes of isolated actions and individual prowess are found in such letters.  When the bloody battle of Corinth was fought in October 1862 the press teemed with accounts of it.  Perhaps thirty different persons furnished accounts of that bloody day.  But by far the most full, satisfactory and (apparently) candid statement of the whole campaign which it was my privilege to see, was in a private letter from a Belton, Texas, boy, of perhaps 18, Ed. Smith, by name, of Ross' 6th Texas cavalry, to his brother, Capt. Smith, of Allen's regiment.
               
The same remark applies to the cavalry portion of the battle of Chickamauga, the writer in that case being a  young man named Coleman writing to his father in Fannin county.  These are two striking cases under my own observation, though I have seen innumerable valuable letters of similar character.
               
No doubt is entertained but immediately after, if not before, the conclusion of this war, a "Texas State Historical Society" will be formed and chartered.  Indeed, such a society should have been formed at the beginning of the war.  This Society is the body for which all such letters should be preserved.  By it they can be arranged, labeled, indexed, or extracted from as the case may be, thus preparing them as raw material for the searching analysis of our future State historians.
               
While the general history of this war may be written from public documents and other sources, those letters will furnish a vast fund towards a more particular State and individual history, the sources most likely to foster a proper and honorable State pride, and to build up in the breasts of our descendents a genuine appreciation of both the value and cost of liberty, of manly patriotism and hatred of oppression.
               
This is a passing glimpse of the subject.  Its importance will be evident to the least reflecting, and therefore, my only present object is to call attention to it.
               
The papers of the State are respectfully requested to copy this note.
                                                                                                                                               
J. H. B.
               
Fredericksburg, March, 1865. 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, August 18, 1865, p. 1, c. 3-4

To the People of Texas.

                After a night of war, confusion, and bloodshed, a new era has dawned upon us, and we have new duties, new work to perform.  Let us, like wise men, therefore, buckle on our armor and go to work like men.  We are Americans.  In the vicissitudes of suffering and war through which we as a people have passed, much, very much has been done to be regretted, and if to be done over again could be improved.  But regrets for the past will not correct the ills of the present or secure the hopes of the future.  We have work to do; the path of duty is plain before us, and if we are wise we will follow it and acquit ourselves as Americans ought.  The work of destruction, of "killing off," it is to be hoped has ceased.  Our present duty is to build up, re-organize society and government, and, as far as possible, let by-gones be by-gones.
               
For myself, I take no credit for what I have done or suffered, and care not to inflict suffering upon others.  It is done.  Let us deal with the present—obey the law, do what is right, and let consequences rest with God, where they belong.  The first and most important thing for each man and woman to do, is to provide food, clothing and shelter for those dependent upon their efforts, and in the honest discharge of these duties, the highest good of our people will be secured.  Obedience to and respect for the laws of the land, will secure the object of all good government, to-wit:  the greatest good to the greatest number.
               
Imprisonments, persecutions and wrongs have been suffered by some who still live to remember them; and the persecutors and wrong doers are many of them still in our land.  I have suffered with those who suffered, and can now rejoice with those who rejoice.  It is a blessed thing to be able to forgive.  Let each set an example of forgiveness.  The laws of our great nation are supreme; and they who bear the sword, do not it in vain.  Errors and mistakes should be forgotten in a spirit of generosity and good will.  Crime is sure to be punished, and right doing brings its own reward.  A lie is nothing but a lie, and cannot live long, while Truth is mighty, and lives forever.
               
For over four years the dark tide of war and suffering swept over our land—it was because laws were disobeyed.  A few men were swift to violate the laws, and a nation mourns.  Let us all but be half as earnest to sustain the laws as a few misguided persons were to violate them, and our great State will soon be able to feed and clothe the nation.  We have the material; we have the men, women and children, rich soil, good air and water.  All we need is good honest faithful work.  We have more people able to work than ever before, and in the grand economy of God's providence labor is free, and one man is just as good as another man as long as he behaves as well.  It seems that it required four years of the most terrific war that ever afflicted a civilized people to prove this simple proposition—that one man is just as good as another man, as long as he behaves as well; and it might be safely added, that he who can do the most good work is the best man.
               
Don't let us distract ourselves and our neighbors by squabbling over the question of who shall be Governor, or what man shall be town constable, or whether women ought to vote.  We have an able and efficient Governor; let us help him.  All the other matters will regulate themselves in due time.  What we want now is reasonable security for the persons and effects of our neighbors and friends, and the education of our children.  Meantime, let everybody go to work at something useful and keep out of mischief.  We are a few people, and are able to take care of ourselves, if we only try.  The past four years of war have taught us something.  The men we trusted with public affairs and put in high positions, did not all of them do their work well; they thought more of themselves than they did of the great interests they were appointed to look after.  You know the result.  They treated some of us very badly; and have tried to kill us, and have us killed; but God was stronger than they.  A little paper called "Common Sense" was given to our people, and they put Peebles and Zink and myself in some very disagreeable places, the very recollection of which makes the soul sick.  But God was stronger than they, and we were spared.  They were not willing you should see or consider Common Sense, and attempted to suppress and destroy it, but Providence helped a faithful true-hearted woman to save a copy, and at the request and by the advice of several good citizens, it is hereto appended.
               
Many of you stood guard as Confederate soldiers over me while a prisoner persecuted for conscience sake, and I have never had an opportunity to thank you for the kindness uniformly extended, and oftentimes the high bearing of brave gentlemen in hours of peril that you evinced.  I do think, and shall always be glad to see any of you.  The war is over now and everything on a peace basis; be faithful to your duty as citizens of our great Commonwealth, and let each man resolve that, for himself, he will never bring reproach upon the name of an American citizen.  Let us all heartily work together for the upbuilding of prosperity and the restoration of law and good order.  The work is to be done by individuals; every person has a part to perform.  Let each one be faithful and be strong to do his part.
               
I remain your wellwisher and fellow-citizen.                                    D. J. Baldwin. 

[Skips from October 5, 1865 to January, 1866] 

BELLVILLE [TX] COUNTRYMAN, April 13, 1866, p. 1, c. 2-3

Romance of the War—Thrilling Adventures of a Young and Beautiful Woman.

                Among the many thrilling events of the late war, says the St. Louis Republican, none can exceed the adventures of Mrs. Loretta De Camp, the subject of this sketch.  Mrs. De Camp, whose maiden name was Roach, was born in the West Indies in 1838, and is now about twenty-eight years of age.  At an early period her parents moved to the United States and settled in the Parish of St. James, Louisiana.  The current of her life ran smoothly on until the outbreak of the war for Southern independence, when, fired by enthusiasm in, as she thought, the cause of liberty, she donned the male attire, and was among the first to rush to arms.  Raising a company of cavalry, and equipping it at her own expense, she proceeded to Virginia and there served for eight months on the Peninsula, under the command of the celebrated Colonel Dreux, before her sex was discovered.  When this occurred she was at once mustered out and ordered home.  Instead of obeying the order, she proceeded to Columbus, Kentucky, and was serving with General Polk at the evacuation of that place.  She proceeded to Island No. 10, but not being satisfied with the manner in which affairs were conducted there, she left and went to Fort Pillow, where she was elected First Lieutenant in Captain Philips' Company of Independent Tennessee Cavalry.  With her company she proceeded to Corinth and reported to General A. S. Johnston.  At the battle of Shiloh Captain Philips fell mortally wounded, and the command then devolved on her.  While gallantly leading her company in a charge, she was twice wounded and carried from the field.  After the retreat from Corinth she was taken to New Orleans for surgical treatment, and when the city fell into the Federal hands she was among those taken prisoner, after a confinement of several months she was paroled, and soon after exchanged.
               
Proceeding at once to Richmond, the disguised female soldier was commissioned first lieutenant in the Adjutant General's Department, and ordered to report to General Marcus J. Wright, commanding the district of Atlanta.  Upon reporting, she was assigned to duty with the Provost Marshal, as chief of detectives and military conductor.  Serving for several months in this capacity, she met Major De Camp of the Third Arkansas Cavalry, to whom she was engaged to be married previous to the war.  The ceremony was then performed in Atlanta, and from dashing Lieutenant Roach she was transformed to the sober Mrs. Major De Camp.  From this time her services ceased as an officer in the field, and she was engaged in secret service—sometimes in the Confederacy, again in England, and then in Canada.  In 1865 she spent several months traveling in the United States, and even went as far as the Sioux country, in Minnesota.  Her husband, who was taken prisoner in the Fall of 1863, while serving with his regiment in Georgia, was carried to New York.  After a long and arduous siege she at length succeeded in getting him paroled in January, 1865, but he lived only eight days after his release from prison.  Subsequent to the death of her husband (in January, 1865), she proceeded to Columbus, Ohio, to watch over the interests of Confederate prisoners at Camp Chase.
               
After the final collapse of the Confederacy, Mrs. De Camp remained in the North until January, when she returned to her home in Louisiana; but remaining there only a few days, she proceeded to Memphis, and purchased a stock of goods which were shipped on the ill-fated steamer Miami, which was blown up on the Arkansas in February.  She was one of the two ladies who were saved, but with the sacrifice of all her baggage and goods.  By an unfortunate over-sight on the part of her merchants, her goods were not insured, and, consequently, she lost her all.
               
Mrs. De Camp is now in this city, and sojourning at the Southern Hotel.  Many who served in the Confederate army will remember the dashing Lieutenant Roach, of whom so much was said in Mobile and Selma in 1863.  Our space will not permit a full recital of her adventures.